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Common hazards and its characteristics

common hazards and its characteristics

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************* ******

****

******* ******

*******

INSTRUCTOR'S NAME:

****

OF ***********

********

****** ******* Hazards

***

***

characteristics

The

*********

***

common

*******

********

Floods:

***

inundation ** extensive **** **** **** water

for

******* **** ** ************* ******** **

associated

**** significant rise ** ***** ***** ** * ****** lake reservoir *** Coastal *******

*******

*** **** **** * speed ******* ** *** 55 knots ******** *** ******* ***** ******

**

*********** *********

*******

sea ****** ********** **** *** waves and ***** great **** **

life

and ****** ** ********* *********** Large-scale closed-circulation system in *** **********

*****

*** western Atlantic with *** ********** ******** and ****** winds **** ****** ********* **

****

******** ********** *** **************** ** the ******** hemisphere ********** ****

********

of ******** origin **** *** wind ***** ** ** ***** ****** * *********

is

* ****** ******** ***** while *** ***** **** ****** *

relatively

**** ****** called *** ****************** ******* a hurricane ***** ******* **** ***** storms are ***** ** “typhoons”

in

**** Western ******* “cyclones” in the Indian ***** *** ********************* ** *** ************ ********

eruptions:

an ***** ****** ** ****** **** **** ***** **** * ***** distance ****** cooling

and

solidifying The ******** ** ******** ****** *** vent which ****** **** Pressure

***

******* ** * ****** ** ******* ****** where * *********** ******** ** ejected Droughts:

a

naturally ********* ********** **** ****** when ************* *** ************* below normal ****** ******* *****

*****

to **** *** vegetation to die ***** ** extended ****** ** *** ******* ******* *****

******

**** ******** *** ***** ** ************ ****** ***** ****** *****

supply

shortage) in a ********** *********** ** ******* all varieties ** ***** ******** ***** the

*********

** ******** **** ******** the term ****** ** ********** ******** ** **** *** ***** *******

*****

*** or several slide ********* *********** Tectonic ****** caused

**

*********** ******* ********** ** *** ******** *** *** earth ** ********** ** *

motion

** the ground ******* ranging **** * ***** ****** *** * **** ******

*******

** shaking ********* apart and causing

******

******** ** **** on *** ****** An earthquake ** a **** **

******

**** ****** transmitted ******* **** *** surface ***** ** *** ***** ** ******** circles from a *****

of

****** energy release **** focus *************** ** ******** Hazard ****** *** ** discussed ********* **

*******

******** ** ********** ********* ******** ***** extent * speed of ***** ******* ********** ***

temporal

spacing These ********** define a hazard *** *** ********* *** type ** ******** **** ********* or ********

A)

Magnitude:

*********

*** strength **

force

** an ***** To assess **** magnitude one must ***** have

*

******** for ********** In *** **** ** floods **** ******* *** ********* **

often

********* ** *** ******* ****** ** flood ****** above ******* *** level ***** *****

**

****** *****

******

For ******* ****** the ********* *** ******** ** the Richter ***** ***** is

**

******** ** the ****** of energy ******** *** ** earthquake But *** ******** ** **

*****

*** also ** measured ** **** **** it **** ******** characteristics ********* ******** *

******

******* ** *** ******** ** ** ****** ***** on *** ********** human ********** ** **

For

******* *** ******** Mercalli ***** ******** *** ********* ** earthquakes ***** ** damage ** ********** ***

the

human ********** ** *** ***** *** ********** *** ************** ***** is * ******* ** ***** ********* ***

*********

It ********* ********* strength *** impact ***** ** * *********** ***** **** Category

*

hurricanes ****** ** *** most severe *** ************ ** ********** describes how *****

an

event of * ***** ********* or intensity ******* This *** ** ***** ** ***********

*****

**** as ******************** ** **************** or in more quantitative ********* **** as recurrence *********

For

****** * ********** interval ** 10 years ******** that ** *** year *

*****

** **** magnitude *** a 1 ** ** ***** chance *** occurring

**

Duration: ** another ******** ********* **** describes *** long ** ***** ********* **** ***

*****

from ******* as ***** ** ******* ******* for ** earthquake ** ******* as **** as *******

**

**** *** ******* floods *** **** for ***** and ******* *** ****** **

Areal

******* is * ******* ** *** ***** ******* ** ** ***** **** ******* **** a ******* or *

*****

********

*****

*** **** * ***** ***** ******* ****** such as ******** *** ***** nuclear

*********

(like *** one ** Chernobyl in 1986) ****** ***** *********** ******* while * ***** ** a

****

flow *** ***** **** ******** of land E) Speed ** rate ** onset: ****** ** ***

******

** **** between *** ***** ********** of **** ***** *** its **** ** *** ***** ** *****

*****

events **** ** ********* *********** and ******* power plant accidents ** slow onset ******* **** ** ****

erosion

********* *** ******* The speed of ***** ** * risk characteristic **** is

crucial

in ******* to avoid some ** *** ***** ******* ** ******* Indeed **** of

modern

risk ********** ******* ** geared ****** ********* our ability ** ****** ***** of ** ********* ****** ***** ***

*****

as possible ** ** ** ****** *** **** between signal ********* *** *** **** ** ****

event

for ******* *** ******** ********** vulnerable populations F) ******* ********** ****** ** the ************

**

******* **** *** ***** in ***** ***** *** ***** ******* distribution ** * ****** ******* of

***

********* ** hazards because it differentiates ******* ******* **** ***** ****** a ********** ******

***

those **** **** **** ********** For example although ********* *** ***** **** ***** anywhere **

****

*** ** **** ********* occur ** *** ************* belt" ** *** Central Plains **** ***** *** Nebraska

*******

*** **** ***** *** ******* **** **** *********

******

** *********** **** ***** ******* ** ******** spacing: ********* *** sequencing and *********** ** ******

****

******** *** quite random ** ***** ****** (industrial ********* volcanic ********** whereas ****** ******* ****

a

******** ** regular *********** ********** *********** *** ************* ** ******** ******* *** ******

**********

*** ***** clear; if *** can expect certain hazards ** be **** ******

**

******* seasons ** ** ********** ******* ********* *** can *** ***** ** communicate *** **** **

***********

******** *********** ** * ****** ****** **** mount *** ********* ******* ** *****

***

to respond ****

*******

*** *********** ** *** ********* ******** ********* ******* *** **** more ***********

**

********** response agencies because **** ******* * *** ***** ** ************ **

all

***** *** the rare **** **** ******** quick ********* *** *********

responses

h) ********* refers ** the nature ** ******** ***** is ** ********* concern **

*********

risk and mitigating the ****** ** ******* *** example is ******** ********* or involuntary? **** ****

*************

******* we **** ****** ******* **** ******* *** *** we *** exposed ** *****

**

*** neither ******* *** ******* *** **** earthquakes *** *** other **** ** do ****

****

degree ** ****** *************** about ***** ** ***** (eg ***********

*******

regions) what **** of food ** *** *** *********** *** commercially ***** produce) ** ****

*****

** ********** we ****** ** *** scuba ****** using

*****

or ******** **** ******** ****** our vulnerability ** **** ******** ***** *************** ** hazard ******

***

significant **** measured ** ***** of *** ***** ** response **** ******** **

******

** ***** seven characteristics *** **** ******* *** ********* ** it denotes

***

********* *************** ** * hazardous ***** ******* *** ************* References **** ** ** **** ** *********

***

** Scott ****** ********** Hazards New ***** **************** ****** ****** * ****** ******* Hazards New

*****

********* ********** ****** Burton Ian Robert W ***** *** ******* * White ******

***

*********** *** Hazard *** ***** ****** ********** Press ******** ******* * ******* *

Forbes

* Willard ****** and ****** * ******** **** ****** ******* and Technological **********

Causes

Effects and Preventative ******** Easton: ************ Academy ** ******** ***** ******* F (editor) ******

*******

Hazards: ***** National ****** *** ****** Oxford ********** *****

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