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I HAVE TO REPLY TO TWO OF MY CLASSMATES 150 WORDS Describe Freud's approach to psychoanalysis Describe one of the projective tests identified in the course text [starting on p. 58]Identify a p

I HAVE TO REPLY TO TWO OF MY CLASSMATES 150 WORDS

       Describe  Freud's approach to psychoanalysis

  • Describe one of the projective tests identified in the course text [starting on p. 58]
  • Identify a peer-reviewed article  (Links to an external site.)in the School library that uses a projective test in a study
  • Describe how the projective test [used in the study] was applied in the study
  • Describe the strengths and limitations of the study, including the strengths and weaknesses of the projective test used in the study

1. Describe Freud's approach to psychoanalysis

Freud developed a system of psychotherapy known as psychoanalysis after observing that the causes of mental disorders were buried in the unconscious mind through his experimentation with hypnosis. The goal of psychoanalysis was to bring crucial unconscious material into consciousness where it can be examined in a rational manner. Freud’s approach to psychanalysis was to utilize different tactics: free association (patients are encouraged to speak freely in order to bypass he ego to reach the unconscious mind), dream interpretation (analyzing the symbolic representation of the unconscious mind) and hypnosis (a method of bypassing the ego to reach the unconscious mind). Another approach is knowns as transference. This is where the emotions associated with people from past situations are transferred onto the therapist (i.e., a patient speaks to and treats the therapist as if the therapist were their deceased parent). Freud warned that handling transference was a delicate and crucial part of the therapy process. He also cautioned therapists against countertransference, which occurs when the therapist displaces their own feelings toward other individuals onto the client. (Burger, 2015, p. 3)

Describe one of the projective tests identified in the course text

One of the projective tests identified in the course text is the Rorschach inkblot. This test consists of 10 cards, each containing nothing more than a blot of ink, sometimes in more than one color. Test takers are instructed to describe what they see in the blot of ink. Therapists can identify responses that are consistent with information obtained during previous therapy sessions and topics that need to be addressed in future therapy sessions. (Burger, 2015, p. 59)

Identify a peer-reviewed article in the School library that uses a projective test in a study.

The article that I located utilized the Rorschach Inkblot Test to investigate the correlation between mental retardation and psychiatric disorders.  https://journals-sagepub-com.ez.sjcny.edu/doi/pdf/10.2466/pr0.94.3c.1313-1321Links to an external site.

Describe how the projective test [used in the study] was applied in the study

The Rorschach Inkblot Test was administered to a sample of 97 subjects (52 women and 45 men) who were divided into four subgroups according to two main factors, presence or absence of mental retardation and psychiatric diagnosis (schizophrenia or depression). The subjects with mental retardation were admitted as inpatients in a rehabilitation institute and the subjects with schizophrenia or depression were inpatients in a psychiatric clinic. The subjects were admitted to the study based on their willingness and capacity reliably to undergo psychological testing.

Describe the strengths and limitations of the study, including the strengths and weaknesses of the projective test used in the study

The strength of the Rorschach Inkblot Test was that it was useful in determining the need for more focused rehabilitative training for those patients with mental retardation and additional psychiatric diagnosis. The limitation of the study was the lack of quality responses received from some of the subjects which appeared to impair perceptual performance. There were no weaknesses indicated in the study.

References

Burger, J. M. (2015). Personality (9th ed.). Cengage Learning

Di Nuovo, S. F., Buono, S., Colucci, G., & Pellicciotta, A. (2004).     Psychopathology and mental retardation: A study using the Rorschach inkblot     test. Psychological Reports, 94(3), 1

EXAMPLE OF REPLY

Hey Tia,

Awesome post!  I agree that hypnosis played a huge role in how Freud conducted his method of psychoanalyzing patients who suffered from various mental illnesses and conditions in order to uncover the inner workings of the mind by reaching the subconscious.  Allowing for transference can allow for the patient to be able to act as they would with someone that is deceased, allowing for them to reveal even more and this was found by Freud to be very effective.  The Rorschach inkblot test is such an interesting way to connect what was said in previous sessions to things that need to be addressed.  My article also had the usage of schizophrenic subjects and it is so interesting to uncover such intricate details and differences between those that have the disease and with those that do not.  I am sure in the article it discusses how there had to have been differences in responses to what was seen in the inkblots.  Nice choices and discussion of everything presented!

2. 1. Describe Freud's Approach to Psychoanalysis : 

Sigmund Freud was the founder of many great theories in which we see and have stemmed from today. With this, he coined his psychoanalytic theory. Freud believed that there was a way to communicate with individuals and really dig into their deeper thoughts of unconsciousness and bring it to consciousness.  This goal is accomplished through talking to another person about the big questions in life, the things that matter, and diving into the complexities that lie beneath the simple-seeming surface. Freud believed that there was many different layers of the mind, the unconscious level, the preconscious level and the conscious level, all of which played a part of different duties of the mind. For example, one's feelings, memories, instincts, or even desires. 

Some of these unconscious thoughts that Freud chose to examine were even things such as, going deeper into an individual's dreams or childhood memories. Personally, I found this very interesting, and it's amazing to see that we still use therapy techniques like this, and have stemmed off of this into years today.

2. Describe one of the projective tests identified in the course text [starting on p. 58]

Psychoanalysts developed several methods for getting at unconscious material. Freud called dreams the "royal road to the unconscious." He interpreted the symbols in his patients' dreams to understand unconscious impulses. Freudian psychologists use projective tests, free association, and hypnosis to get at this material. Some of which were, The Rorschach Ink-blot test by Hermann Rorschach. This test was used to identify an individual's mental illness, if any. It showed a series of different cards that displayed a blot of ink-- most would be black and grey, but occasionally there would be some with different colors and shapes. What the individual would see,  would then be taken into consideration of what type of mental illness they were dealing with. For example: Some individuals would see things such as violence or gruesome acts in these cards, which then resulted in seeing more of a mental illness. 

3. Identify a peer-reviewed article  (Links to an external site.)in the School library that uses a projective test in a study

http://ez.sjcny.edu:2090/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=2&sid=67579f4a-be64-4056-97ac-5bcf03b7c7de%40pdc-v-sessmgr01Links to an external site.

The projective test in which I chose to identify was the "Projective Test of Masculinity and Femininity" by Kate Franck and Ephraim Rosen. In this study, they used pictures to show patients to identify if an individual was more feminine or masculine.

4. Describe how the projective test [used in the study] was applied in the study. Describe the strengths and limitations of the study, including the strengths and weaknesses of the projective test used in the study--

"In this study groups of students were confronted with pairs of paintings of sex symbols. They were asked to mark which half of each pair(male symbol or female symbol) attracted them more. It was found that significantly more men than women were attracted by female symbols. Thereverse was true for the women. However, just as homosexual tendencies can spring from many different sources, so attraction to own sex symbols can mean many different things. This first procedure, demanding that the subject merely state his preference between structured stimuli, yields no information about specific meanings. Other means, calling for expression rather than impress--ion on the part of the subject, had to be found for betterunderstanding." ( Franck, St.Joseph Library, 2021 ) 

This being said, there are many different factors that can play into this and cause faults or limitations. For example, as we know, many individuals are not just one or the other, along with this, the factors of masculinity and femininity do not necessarily define one's personal preferences of a mate. Along with this, I noticed that on page 258 it stated, "It would be absurd to claim that among college students women are more familiar with sailboats and canoes, and men with ships and cars. Men draw fires and fountains, hardly closer to their spheres of interest than to those of women withtheir cooking and washing", this being said, the study itself is not very progressive and that being said, I would hypothosize  not very accurate or forward with it's ways of thinking ( different sexualities or genders ). 

The strengths would be using this as a study, but it needs more pictures and options and to be more progressive to be accurate to all and inclusive to others.

References: 

Burger, J.M. Personality (9th edition). Cengage Learning, 2015. 

Psychoanalysis: A Brief History of Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory [2019]. (2021). Retrieved 29 March 2021, from https://positivepsychology.com/psychoanalysis/  (Links to an external site.)

 EZ | Login | St. Joseph’s College Libraries.  (2021). Retrieved 29 March 2021, from http://ez.sjcny.edu:2090/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=2&sid=67579f4a-be64-4056-97ac-5bcf03b7c7de%40pdc-v-sessmgr01

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