FINAL EXAMINATION, 2016
GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS: This final exam is worth 100 points.
There are three sections. The Multiple Choice section has 50questions worth 1 point each, for a total of 50 points. Fill-In the Blanks section has 7 questions for a total of 10 points. For the Short Answer section, you must choose to answer 8 of the 12 questions, and each question is worth 5 points, for a total of 40 points.
Answer ALL of the questions in this section of the exam. Indicate your answer by highlighting your choice. Each question is worth 1 point.
1.Which of the following can be considered definitions of "theory"?
A)A theory can be an explanation of scientific laws.
B)A theory is an integrated explanation of numerous hypotheses, each supported by a large body of observations.
C)A theory is a condensation and simplification of many data that previously appeared unrelated.
D)A theory is a prediction for new data suggesting new relationships among a range of natural phenomena.
E)All of the above.
2. A gamate (cell) carries only one allele for each inherited character because the two alleles separate from each other during gamate production (meiosis). This statement defines
A) Monohybrid cross
B) Law of segregation
D) Homologous chromosomes
E) All of the above
3.What is the correct sequence of steps in the scientific method?
I. State a problem
II. Analyze and interpret data
III. Develop a hypothesis
IV. Share the results with other scientists
V. Design and perform experiment to test the hypothesis
A)I – II -III -IV – V
B)III – I -V– II –IV
C)V – IV –III – II – I
D)I – III – V– II – IV
E)V – II –I – III -IV
4.To test a hypothesis about a given variable, experimental and control groups are tested in parallel. Which of the following best explains the dual experiments?
A)In the experimental group, a chosen variable is altered in a known way. In the control group, that chosen variable is not altered so a comparison can be made.
B)In the control group, a chosen variable is altered in a known way. In the experimental group, that chosen variable is not altered so a comparison can be made.
C)In the experimental group, a chosen variable plus all other variables are altered. In the control group, the chosen variable is altered; however, all other variables are held constant.
D)In the experimental and control groups, two different variables are altered.
E)Experimental and control groups experiments are identical and run in parallel to get repeatable results.
5. The smallest unit of life is the
6.You examine a cell under a microscope and you do not see a well defined nucleus. You conclude the cell must a _____________________ cell.
7. All of the following are examples of elements except?
8.Two atoms with the same atomic number, but different mass numbers are called_________.
9. Select the element that is not one of the four most common elements in living matter.
10.Edward was found to heterozygous (Ss) for the sickle-cell trait. The alleles represented by the letters S and s are
A. on the X and Y chromosomes
C. on homologous chromosomes
D. both are present in each of Edward’s sperm cells
E. none of the above
11.The building blocks of proteins are
A. fatty acids
B. amino acids
12. A substance with a pH greater than 7 is ___, while a substance with a pH less than 7 is___.
13.The bond in which 2 atoms share one or more pairs of electrons is a ______________ bond.
14.The energy required for photosynthesis is provided by?
15.The term below that includes the other terms is
16.An element has 43 protons and 50 neutrons. The atomic number of the element is
17.The diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane is called ______.
18.A dog gets many nutrients from its food including amino acids. Which of these can be built directly using the amino acids?
19.Most carbohydrates in the human body are ___________________________.
A)used as building blocks for proteins
B)used as catalysts for reactions in cells
C)consumed as a source of energy
D)not easily absorbed into the bloodstream
E)not necessary for regular bodily functions
20.A scientist removed the plasma membranes from bacteria cells in a culture. She analyzed the cell membranes for specific molecules. Which of these was probably the most common type of molecule present in the bacteria plasma membranes?
21.The site of protein synthesis in the cell is ___________________________.
C)the Golgi apparatus
22.Cyanide is a poison that prevents mitochondria from using oxygen. As a result, the mitochondria cannot produce
23. The replication of DNA ___________________________________________.
A)produces RNA molecules
B)produces completely new strands of DNA
C)produces two DNA molecules, each of which is half-"new" and half-"old" DNA
D)generates excessive DNA, which eventually causes the nucleus to divide
24.The form of RNA that is complementary to DNA and carries the code from the DNA to the site where the protein is synthesized is
25.If the amounts of bases in a DNA molecule are measured, you would find that
A)A = C and G=T
B)A = G and C=T
C)T = A and C =G
D)A = U and C=G
E)U = Cand A =G
26.In humans, the allele for dimples (D) is dominant.The allele for not having dimples (d) is recessive. If a woman (DD) and a man (Dd) have four children, how many of the children will not have dimples?
27.Which of these statements best explains how genes and proteins are related?
A)Genes are segments of DNA that code for proteins.
B) Proteins are segments of DNA that code for genes.
C) Genes are segments of proteins that code for DNA.
D) Proteins are the building blocks of genes.
E) Genes are the building blocks of proteins.
28.Which of the following could not be a sequence of RNA?
29.Information stored in DNA is transferred from the nucleus to the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells in the form of
30.Researchers are studying slider turtles. Slider turtles hatch on the beach and travel to the sea. The researchers discover that the larger baby turtles were more likely to survive than the smaller baby turtles. They hypothesized that the larger turtles could move more quickly toward the water than the smaller turtles, and therefore, the larger turtles reduced their exposure to predators. The survival advantage for the larger baby turtles is a result of ______.
31.The theory of natural selection states that
A) some live and some die in each generation.
B) only the largest and strongest survive.
C) random assortment of genes results in better characteristics in the following generations.
D)the best adapted individuals survive and reproduce, contributing the most genes to the next
E)individuals that mutate in response to their environment will survive.
32.Inheritable mutations, which may allow a population to evolve, are produced
B)as a response to environmental
C)as a response to selection pressure
D)by natural selection
E)by artificial selection
33.A man has type B blood and a woman has type A blood. Their children could have the following:
A. A,B, or O
B. AB only
C. AB or O
D. A, B, AB, or O
34.In a deciduous oak forest of the American northeast, one example of an abiotic component of the ecosystem would be ____________________________.
A)worms in the soil that feed on plant roots
B)worms in the soil that feed on dead organic matter
C)sunlight that filters through the canopy
D)animals such as deer that migrate through the forest but do not eat in the forest
E)plants and animals in the same area
35.Which of the following activities decreases greenhouse gases in the atmosphere?
A) Cutting down trees.
B)Driving gasoline powered vehicles.
C)Using electricity from coal-powered plants.
D) Planting trees.
E) Heating your home.
36. If a bird eats an insect that ate a plant, the bird would be considered a(n)
37.When energy is converted from one form to another, some of the original energy is “lost” as
38.The statement best describes the relationship between plants and animals on earth is
A)plants produce O2and sugars from CO2
B)animals produce CO2and H2O from sugars and O2
C)plants produce O2and sugars and animals produce CO2and H2O
D)animals produce O2and sugars and plants produce CO2and H2O
39.What do plants and animals have in common?
A)They are both heterotrophic.
B)They are both autotrophic.
C)They are both prokaryotic.
D)They are both eukaryotic.
E)The are both hydrophobic
40.To convert RNA genome into DNA, the HIV virus uses the enzyme
A) DNA polymerase
B) DNA ligase
C) Reverse transcriptase
E) None of the above
41.Elephants travel long distances in search of food. Using vibrations felt in the ground, family members traveling separately can communicate with each other. Based on your knowledge of evolution, the ability to communicate over long distances probably developed__________.
A)slowly over millions of years
C)over a ten year period
D)as a strategy to decrease reproduction
E)as a way to communicate with humans
42.The plasma membrane is _____________________.
D)found only in eukaryotic cells
E)found only in prokaryotic cells
43. The electron transport system involve
A. electron transfer
B. enzymes, coenzymes
C. cell membranes
D. all of the above
44.Certain fungi that are important in nutrient recycling because they release nutrients from dead organisms back into the ecosystem are_____________________.
45.Humans are ______.
46.One of the end products of respiration is _____________.
47. A protein molecule, which is denatured, has __________________________.
A)split into smaller molecules
B)changed its shape
C)combined with another molecule
48.___________________ is the term that refers to the energy-requiring movement of a substance across a biological membrane.
49.All of the following are characteristics of life except ____________________________.
50.The regulation of gene expression must be more complex in multicellular eukaryotes than in prokaryotes because
A)eukaryotic cells are much larger
B)prokaryotes are restricted to more stable environments
C) in multicellular eukaryotes, different cells are specialized for different
D)eukaryotes have fewer genes than prokaryotes so each gene must do more
than one function
E)all of these make sense
Fill-in each blank with the appropriate word(s) to complete the sentences. Each completed sentence is worth 1 point.
51. There are two major categories of cells. These categories are _______ cells, which include bacteria, and _________, which include fungi.
52. Tumors that remain at their site of origin are called sacromas while tumors from which cells migrate to other body tissues are called __________.
53. You are given one strand of DNA that has the sequence 5’GAATGC-3’. The complementary strand is _________.
54. The genetic makeup of an organism is called it________, while the physical traits of an organism are called its________.
55. __________ is the diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane.
56. The production of ATP in cells occurs primarily in the _________
57. ___________are the organelles in plant cells that store chlorophyll and perform photosynthetic reactions.
Answer ONLY 8 of the 12 essay questions.
Each question is worth 5 points. The full number of points will be awarded for accurate, correct, full, complete, and thorough answers. Partial credit will be awarded for less than accurate, correct, full, complete, and thorough answers so it is to your advantage to attempt an answer.
1. A population of grasshoppers in the Kansas prairie has two color phenotypes, green and brown. Typically, the prairie receives adequate water to maintain healthy, green grass. Assume a bird that eats grasshoppers moves into the prairie. How will this affect natural selection of the grasshoppers? How might this change in a drought year?
2. You are a writer for “Consumer Reports” magazine and you are asked to design an experiment to evaluate the effectiveness of three brands of whitening strips for teeth. Describe how you would do this using the Scientific Method. Include all of the steps, controls and variables.
3. Viruses are not considered to be living organisms. Name 4 characteristics you could identify to distinguish living organisms from viruses.
4. Explain the process of cell division in animals. Include a description of inter phase, mitosis and cytokinesis.
5. Suppose someone presented data from their research that showed the DNA of a newly discovered species was composed of: 30% adenine, 30% guanine, 20% thymine, 20% cytosine. Based on what you know about DNA structure, explain why these data do not make sense.
6. What are the differences between a covalent bond and an ionic bond?
7. Water is crucial for life as we know it. One of the most important characteristics of water is its ability to act as a solvent. Explain why water is such a good solvent for polar and charged molecules.
8. Suppose you are taking a cruise from California to Hawaii. About halfway there, the ship begins to sink. You are able to board a lifeboat, but now you are floating in the ocean waiting to be rescued. After several days, you are so thirsty that you bend over the side of the boat and drink lots of salty seawater. Explain what you think will happen to your body within a few hours of drinking the ocean water, and explain biological basis for your reaction.
9. What is DNA fingerprinting and explain how this could be used in court or on a TV show such as CSI?
10. DNA and RNA are similar yet distinct components of the cell. Describe three differences between RNA and DNA with respect to their chemical composition and structure. Provide a detailed description of each characteristic you chose in your response.
11. Why would you quickly die if not for the action of enzymes in your cells?
12. List the four “large molecules of life.” Identify their composition and structure, and describe one function they perform in the cell.