Write a 500-800 word response. You do not need to follow a specific outline. The prompt will be the following:Describe and discuss the different powers of the president. Specifically, define the diff

The Presidency Chapter 10 The Presidency The Presidency Establishing the Presidency • The presidency was established by Article II of Constitution • Article II: “ The executive power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America.” – The framers rejected proposals for a multiperson executive – They affirmed that one person would hold presidency to allow for “ energy” in times of need Constitutional Powers of the Presidency: Expressed Powers • Powers and duties of the president • Expressed powers: specific powers granted to the president by the Constitution – Make treaties – Grant pardons – Nominate judges and other public officials – Receive ambassadors – Command the military Constitutional Powers of the Presidency: Implied and Delegated Powers • Powers and duties of president • Implied powers: powers necessary to allow the presidential exercise of expressed powers – Affirmed in the case of Myers v. United States (1926) • Delegated powers: powers assigned to one agency but exercised by another agency with permission of first – Congress delegates power to the president to develop the means to execute its decisions Constitutional Powers of the Presidency: Military Power • Expressed powers • Military power – The president is commander in chief – Heads the nation ’ s intelligence network • includes the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), National Security Council (NSC), National Security Agency (NSA), and Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) – Can deploy troops domestically during emergency • other reasons include enforcing a federal judicial order or to protect federally guaranteed civil rights Constitutional Powers of the Presidency: Judicial Power • Expressed powers • Judicial power – The president can grant pardons, reprieves, and amnesty • President Ford famously pardoned Richard Nixon • President Carter declared amnesty for draft evaders Constitutional Powers of the Presidency: Diplomatic Power • Expressed powers • Diplomatic power: the president is the head of state – Makes treaties (but with the advice and consent of the Senate) – Can “ recognize ” other countries and restore diplomatic ties – Forges executive agreements • these are contracts between two nations similar to a treaty; does not require Senate approval – Receives a mbassadors and other public ministers Constitutional Powers of the Presidency: Executive Power • Expressed powers • Executive power – The president must see that all laws are faithfully executed – Appoints and supervises all executive officers • appointments for ambassadors, ministers, and federal judges require Senate approval – Can claim executive privilege (within limits) Constitutional Powers of the Presidency: Legislative Power 1 • Expressed powers • Legislative power – Addresses Congress on the state of the union • helps initiate legislative action in Congress – Can veto bills • veto: the power to turn down acts of Congress – Congress can override a presidential veto with a two -thirds majority in the House and Senate Constitutional Powers of the Presidency: Legislative Power 2 • Expressed powers • Legislative power – Has the power to issue executive orders • executive order: a rule or regulation issued by the president that has the effect and formal status of legislation – most executive orders provide for reorganization of the structures and procedures of the executive branch • Congress must pass a new law to override an executive order Constitutional Powers of the Presidency: Delegated Powers • Delegated powers • Congress often delegates powers to the executive branch – Congress cannot execute and administer all the programs it creates and all the laws it enacts – Congress often defines broad goals and objectives • it delegates power to the executive branch agencies to determine how goals are to be achieved – Example: Department of Health and Human Services under the Affordable Health Care Act Constitutional Powers of the Presidency: Inherent Powers • Inherent powers • Implied presidential powers are not directly stated in the U.S. Constitution but are inferred from it – Often asserted during wartime and national emergency • Congress has the power to declare war; but the president may send troops into battle without congressional approval • Presidents have generally ignored the War Powers Resolution (passed by Congress in 1973) – states that forces must be withdrawn in 60 days in the absence of congressional authorization The Presidency as an Institution: Cabinet • Institutional resources • The Cabinet – Includes secretaries and chief administrators of the major departments of federal government – Has no constitutional status – Meets but makes no decisions as a group – Most members of the cabinet have not worked with each other before – The “ inner cabinet, ” which includes the National Security Council (NSC), often has strong influence with the president The Presidency as an Institution: Staff • Institutional resources • White House staff – Composed mainly of analysts and political advisers • they inform the president about policies and political implications – Kitchen cabinet • an informal group of advisers to whom the president turns for counsel and guidance The Presidency as an Institution: Staff and EOP • Institutional resources • Executive Office of the President (created in 1939) – Permanent agencies that perform specific management tasks for the president • includes the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) – must approve every proposal from an executive agency that requires spending – Also includes the Council of Economic Advisers (CEA), NSC, and other agencies The Presidency as an Institution: The Vice Presidency Institutional resources • Vice presidency – Exists to (1) succeed the president in case of death, resignation, or incapacity; (2) preside over the Senate – Main value to president is electoral • The vice president (VP) is often chosen to help the president win election – Some VPs assist the president as a “ management ” resource – The Twenty -Fifth Amendment codifies that the VP will assume the presidency if the president cannot perform his or her duties The Presidency as an Institution: The First Spouse Institutional resources • First spouse – Typically performs ceremonial duties • greeting foreign dignitaries; visiting other countries; attending national ceremonies – Some are active on major policy issues • Hillary Clinton took a lead role on health care reform – Others may be active in noncontroversial causes • Michelle Obama ’ s effort to fight childhood obesity Contemporary Bases of Presidential Power 1 Presidential power • During the nineteenth century, Congress was the nation ’ s dominant institution of government; that is not true today • Presidents expand their power in two primary ways – Popular appeals to the public ( “ going public ” ) – Control of executive agencies or the creation of new administrative institutions and procedures Contemporary Bases of Presidential Power 2 Presidential power • Presidents also can expand power through their party – Rely on their political party in Congress to implement their legislative agenda – Struggle to get much accomplished when their party is in the minority in Congress Contemporary Bases of Presidential Power: Going Public 1 • Popular mobilization: going public • Nineteenth -century presidents were expected to be unifiers and not speak out in public about policies • Now, going public is a favored weapon in the political arsenal of most presidents • Some limitations to going public – Public opinion is fickle – Presidential performance rarely meets expectations Contemporary Bases of Presidential Power: Going Public 2 • Popular mobilization: going public • Franklin Roosevelt was particularly effective at using radio for “ fireside chats ” to build support for his programs • President Obama has made use of the Internet – The White House website keeps people informed of president ’ s policy agenda – Obama has also appeared on podcasts – Facebook and Twitter are additional vehicles Contemporary Bases of Presidential Power: Administrative Strategy • Administrative strategy • Presidents have increased administrative capabilities over time by – Enhancing the reach and power of the Executive Office of the President (EOP) – Increasing White House control over the bureaucracy through regulatory review – Expanding the role of executive orders and other instruments of direct presidential governance Governing by Decree • Presidents can act unilaterally through the use of • Executive orders • Presidential decrees • Executive agreements • National security findings and directives • Proclamations • Reorganization plans Governing by Decree: Signing Statements • Presidents can also act unilaterally through the use of signing statements • Signing statements – Announcements made by the president when signing bills into law, presenting the president ’ s interpretation of law – The president may use a signing statement to point to sections of law he or she believes are improper or unconstitutional – Signing statements became a routine tool for presidents beginning with President Reagan Governing by Decree: Nonenforcement of Laws • Presidents have a final instrument of direct presidential governance: nonenforcement of laws • Nonenforcement of laws – A president may refuse to implement and enforce a law – This is a highly controversial act for a president to take Presidential Power: Advantages and Limits • Advantages of administrative strategy • Gives the president substantial capacity to achieve policy results despite congressional opposition • Limits of presidential power • Congress controls the purse strings – Inability of the president to work cooperatively with Congress can lead to government shutdown • The president is also limited by macro -economic conditions and the possibility of divided government Who Participates? • Voting patterns in recent presidential elections • Age – Young voters (18 – 29) favor Democratic candidates by the widest margin of any age group • Race – White voters typically favor Republican candidates – Nonwhite voters heavily favor Democratic candidates • Sex – Male voters typically favor Republican candidates – Female voters typically favor Democratic candidates Public Opinion Poll: Q1 Which branch of government do you believe is most powerful? a) Congress b) presidency c) judiciary d) They are equally powerful. Public Opinion Poll: Q2 Which branch of government do you believe should be most powerful? a) Congress b) presidency c) judiciary d) None; they should be equally powerful. Public Opinion Poll: Q3 Which of the following do you believe is the most important role of the president? a) commander in chief (in charge of the military) b) chief diplomat (managing U.S. relations with other nations) c) chief executive (as “ boss” of the executive branch) d) chief legislator (legislative powers) e) chief politician (party leadership) Public Opinion Poll: Q4 Members of Congress are not term limited. Members of the U.S. Supreme Court serve life terms.

Should a president be able to run for a third term if the voters support it? a) yes b) no Public Opinion Poll: Q5 Should the vice president be elected independently of the president (no tickets), so that one could vote for a president and vice president of different parties if they wished to do so? a) yes b) no Additional Information Following this slide, you will find additional images, figures, and tables from the textbook. The Veto Process Presidential Success on Congressional Votes The Presidency as an Institution The Electoral College Contemporary Bases of Presidential Power Thinking Critically about Presidential Power and Democracy Head of State: Barack Obama Executive Orders: Barack Obama Affordable Care Act Vice President: Mike Pence America Side by Side: Executive Branches in Comparison