Required Textbook Readings: Schultz, D.P., & Schultz, S.E. (2012). A History of Modern Psychology, (Ed. 10th). Chapter 9, Behaviorism: Antecedent Influences Chapter 10, Behaviorism: The Beginn
113 Volume 1 N umber 2 J uly 2011 Journal of Economic and S ocial S tudies The Effects of Locus of Contr ol on Learning P er formance: A Case of an A cademic O rganization Rana ÖZEN KUT ANİS M anagement F aculty , M anagement D epar tment Sakar ya U niv ersity , Esentepe Campus, S akar ya, Tur key [email protected] ya.edu.tr M uammer MESCİ Akçakoca School of Tourism and H otel M anagement Dogancılar Campus, D üz ce U niv ersity , Akçakoca, D uz ce, Tur key muammer [email protected] ce.edu.tr Zeynep Ö VDÜR Foreign Languages D epar tment Preparator y School, D üz ce U niv ersity , K onuralp , DUZ CE zeynepo [email protected] ce.edu.tr Abstr Act The purpose of this study is to resear ch what influences the locus of contr ol has on the lear ning per formance of students. I n or der to r each this goal, the study ’s theor etical frame has been designed including the issues of the locus of contr ol (inter nal-exter nal) under the fr amewor k of organizational behaviour and lear ning per formance. I n this r esear ch, quantitativ e resear ch method is used b y keeping in mind the scope and qualities of the topic. The scope of resear ch is identified as all the students who continue to higher education. A s the population of the r esear ch is adequate to study , it is not needed to identify extr a sampling. The data of the r esear ch ar e gather ed b y the help of standar diz ed sur vey technique. The locus of contr ol lev els of the subjects, who ar e going to take par t in the r esear ch, ar e measur ed with The Scale of I nter nal-E xter nal Locus of Contr ol dev eloped b y R otter (1966) and Lear ning Scale dev eloped b y G üngör (2006). The gather ed data ar e checked b y the help of descriptiv e statistics techniques and multiple r egr ession analysis b y using SPSS pr ogr am. A t the end of the r esear ch it is concluded that lear ning per formances of the students with inter nal locus of contr ol are high, and they ar e mor e pr oactiv e and effectiv e during the lear ning pr ocess. O n the other hand, the ones with exter nal locus of contr ol ar e mor e passiv e and r eactiv e during this period. A par t fr om these, it is r evealed that ther e ar e some differ ences among students ’ demogr aphic gr oups and their lear ning factors. Key wor ds: Locus of contr ol; Lear ning per for mance; A cademic organization Jel codes: D23, L2, L25 Rana ÖZEN KUT ANİS & M uammer MESCİ & Z eynep Ö VDÜR 114 Journal of Economic and S ocial S tudies Intr oduction In the globalizing and changing world, organizations need to adapt to ne w envi - ronmental conditions. To be successful in these ne w conditions, organizations need to cr eate v alue for their customers. I n our case that would be the students. I t is impor tant for the organizations to appr eciate their students to hav e better position than riv als. I n or der to acquir e the information, produce and distinguish it in the organizations, information is r equir ed to be organiz ed accor ding to the needs of the students, adopted, and evaluated by the organization. At this point, organizational learning has a considerable effect on incr easing the success of the organizations. Rotter (1966) defines the locus of contr ol, in his S ocial Learning Theor y, as the r e- infor cements which ar e basic mar kers of individual ’s attitudes in the long term. The concept of locus of contr ol has an essential place in literatur e in helping students who hav e difficulty in learning and attitude. Locus of contr ol is one of the vital con - cepts in the context of learning difficulty and attitude change. This concept co vers the idea that individuals, thr oughout their liv es, analyse the ev ents as their attitudes or they believ e that those ev ents r esult fr om chance, fate or outside for ces (E rdogan, 2003). Rotter (1966), in his study regar ding Social Learning Theor y, ascer tains that some students display the priz es or r einfor cements gained as a r esult of their kno wl- edge and abilities while some other students display the for ces out of their contr ol. Rotter (1966), basing on his study , expr esses the situations in which r einfor cements occur accor ding to the attitudes of the individuals as individuals ’ locus of contr ol. Wher eas he assesses the situations, after which r einfor cements occur out of the indi - viduals ’ attitudes, as the individuals ’ external locus of contr ol. Internal or external locus of contr ol plays an impor tant r ole for students to sustain the efficacy and usefulness of learning per formance. The kno wledge and experi - ences gained b y the students b y means of organizational learning ar e a vital factor in incr easing student per formance. I n this context, it is necessar y for organizations to fulfil learning function in an arrangement and to use this function oriented to the impr ovement of the students. This study determines whether U niv ersity students hav e the internal or external locus of contr ol; fur thermor e, which locus of contr ol they possess in the learning period. To sum up , it will be obser ved what kind of an effect locus of contr ol has on learning per formance. For these reasons, the issues of locus of contr ol (internal-external) and learning per formance hav e been giv en place in this study . The Effects of Locus of Contr ol on Learning P erformance: A Case of an A cademic 115 Volume 1 N umber 2 J uly 2011 In this r esear ch, it is tried to answ er the r esear ch questions as stated belo w. These questions hav e been designed to describe the r elationships betw een locus of contr ol and learning per formance. These questions ar e as in the follo wing; Resear ch Q uestion 1: What ar e the factors of par ticipants ’ learning pr ocesses? Resear ch Q uestion 2: I s ther e any differ ence betw een demographic gr oups and learning factors ’ means? Resear ch Q uestion 3: I s ther e any r elationship betw een learning factors ’ means and locus of contr ol (internal and external factors)? Literatur e R eview Locus of contr ol r efers to one ’s belief in his or her abilities to contr ol life ev ents (Strauser , 2002). I n other wor ds, locus of contr ol is defined as one ’s thoughts of his/her belief that his/her o wn po wer or for ces out of his/her contr ol ar e influen - tial in any positiv e or negativ e situation occurring during his/her life (S ardogan, 2006). The belief of locus of contr ol is r elated to what r einfor cements hav e hap - pened thr oughout the individuals ’ liv es, namely the r esults, priz es, their success or failur es, r efer to . These attributions r efer not only to chance, fate, and po werful people out of one ’s contr ol, but also to the r esults of his/her o wn attitudes (B asım and S esen, 2006). While one ’s contr ol on his/her o wn life dependent on chance, fate and po werful people is explained as external contr ol; maintaining the individual contr ol o ver one ’s life on his/her o wn is described as the internal contr ol (R otter , 1966). When envir onmental conditions ar e not sufficient to explain individuals ’ success or failur es, locus of contr ol can facilitate in making these situations clear . For instance, individuals may sometimes per ceiv e good and bad ev ents in differ ent ways. To mention that these differ ent ways ar e based on external and internal for ces (Taylor , 2006). The individuals, who hav e the internal locus of contr ol, think that they hav e a big role on affecting the ev ents which influence their liv es. F urthermor e, they assess themselv es as possessing the po wer for the attitude they want to display b y having the positiv e ego concept, and they believ e that they can dir ect their liv es whatev er way they desir e (G ülv eren, 2008). Rana ÖZEN KUT ANİS & M uammer MESCİ & Z eynep Ö VDÜR 116 Journal of Economic and S ocial S tudies The individuals with external locus of contr ol r elate the ev ents affecting their liv es to per ceptions such as chance, fate, and for tune which ar e out of their contr ol. Additionally , they believ e that the ev ents affecting their liv es cannot be pr edicted and contr olled (K ücükkaragöz, 1998). I ndividuals with internal locus of contr ol ar e car eful, aler t, dominant, focused on success, self-confident, and ingenious. O n the other hand, the individuals with external locus of contr ol ar e less car eful, affected b y the group members, easily influenced by external for ces, less self-confident, and they display unsteady per formances (R otter , 1975). Individuals lay out two contr ol attitudes as internal and external b y considering that the r einfor cements they hav e fr om their previous experiences r esult fr om their own attitudes or external for ces (Cetin, 2008). The differ ences betw een internal and external locus of contr ol accor ding to the qualities of an individual ar e sho wn in Table 1 belo w. Table 1. The differ ences among the individuals with external and internal locus of contr ol Variables Internal Locus of Con trol Ext ernal Locus of Con trol Abilities the individuals with in ternal locus of con trol have a t endency t o choose the activities in which the y can displa y their abilities. the individuals with external locus of con trol prefer the activities in which the y can sho w the role of chance on their liv es. Responsibility the y feel tha t the y are responsible for their own decisions, and the y per ceiv e tha t their f ate is not affect ed by the fact ors out of their con trol, but b y their o wn decisions. The y try to incr ease good conditions in their life; on the other hand the y mak e an effort to reduce the level of bad c onditions. Chang e their belie f tha t the y have the con trol over their f ate preven ts them from getting suspicious of the chan ging period since the y f eel responsible f or their o wn actions. the y usually vie w chang e as a dang er as the y do not f eel the con trol of the forces affecting their lives. the y prefer to be a t a s tatus wher e the y can be passiv e in case of a chang e. The Effects of Locus of Contr ol on Learning P erformance: A Case of an A cademic 117 Volume 1 N umber 2 J uly 2011 En vir onmen t the y use mor e c on trol in their en vir onmen t and the y displa y a be tter learning perf ormance. When the informa tion is about their own conditions, the y activ ely sear ch for ne w informa tion. Also , the y use the informa tion be tter if the y are in need of solv ing a complic ated problem. the y displa y fewer compliance attitudes than individuals with internal locus of c on trol. Str ess it can be c onclu ded tha t possessing internal locus of c on trol can help emplo yees cope with the s tress and other difficulties in business. the emplo yees with e xternal locus of c on trol c ann ot c ope with the stress and difficulties in a proper way. Job Satisfaction Job satisfaction of individuals with internal locus of c on trol is higher than a per son with e xternal locu s of con trol. The y can do be tter business and the y bene fit or get priz es in return. the y t end to impr ove or progr ess f aster and get mor e w ages. external locus of con trol has a neg ative corr ela tion with job satisfaction; ho wever it is in a positiv e corr ela tion with men tal and ph ysic al health. Work Motiv ation The y mos tly beli eve tha t their efforts will end with a g ood perf ormance. The y are mor e self con fiden t and the y trus t their abilities. The y have mor e expect ation tha t their good perf ormances will be a warded and the y t end to per ceiv e tha t their status in busine ss is mor e proper and f air. if ther e is no priz e for perf ormance, the y do not have a diff eren t perf ormance-priz e expect ation from the individuals with in ternal locus of c on trol. Sour ce: D emir kan, S elcan (2006:36). Table 1 pr esents the attitudes display ed b y internal and external locus of contr ol accor ding to the behavioural qualities. I n addition to Table 1, the external locus of contr ol has two types. The first one is the pr oper locus of contr ol. The individuals with pr oper locus of contr ol hav e a mor e r eal rational for assessing their worlds, which ar e contr olled externally . To illustrate, they make a little effor t to make socio- economic conditions better . The second locus of contr ol is the defender locus of contr ol. It has been seen that the individuals with this locus attempt to use external beliefs as a defence for the expected inadequacies. A dditionally , one of the differ - Rana ÖZEN KUT ANİS & M uammer MESCİ & Z eynep Ö VDÜR 118 Journal of Economic and S ocial S tudies ences betw een the individuals with internal and external locus of contr ol is the issue of looking for information about their envir onment. The people with internal locus of contr ol hav e been obser ved to feel the need to acquir e mor e information about their envir onment, and be mor e activ e to seek and achiev e justice in social activities when compar ed with the ones with external locus of contr ol (D emir kan, 2006). It is seen that the first empirical studies on locus of contr ol in literatur e (P har es, 1957; J ames and R otter , 1958) appear ed to find an answ er to the question of wheth - er individuals ’ expectations ar e r elated to their abilities or chance (S ardogan, 2006). In pr esent literatur e ther e hav e been many studies on locus of contr ol. S ome of these studies hav e been pr esented in Table 2 belo w. Table 2. S tudies conducted on locus of contr ol Author(s) Year The Purpose of the Study The Me thod of the s tudy The Findings and the Results of the R esear ch Chen and Silv erthorne 2008 to ob ser ve the effects of locus of c on trol, w ork perf ormance, job satisfaction, and stress sc ale on attitude Quan titative in sc ales of locus of con trol it has c ome out tha t perf ormance, job satisfaction, and s tress are e ffectiv e in people’ s responsibilities. Mor eo ver, individuals with high internal c on trol ha ve high work perf ormance, c on ten t and lo w s tress. Aube e t. al. 2007 To t est the e ffects of the per ceiv ed organiz ational support, w ork aut onom y, the f ace ts of or ganiz ational participa tion (activ e, norma tive, e tc.), and locus of c on trol Quan titative it has c ome out tha t ther e is a positiv e c orr ela tion be tw een or ganiz ational support, and norma tive participa tion, and activities. also , it has been c oncluded tha t locus of c on trol and work aut onom y ha ve a consider able e ffect on organiz ational support and activ e participa tion. The Effects of Locus of Contr ol on Learning P erformance: A Case of an A cademic 119 Volume 1 N umber 2 J uly 2011 Coban and Hamamcı 2006 to e xamine the decision making strategies used b y the individuals with diff eren t locus of con trol. Quan titative at the end of the r esear ch, it has c ome t o a c onclusion tha t the individuals with internal locus of c on trol mos tly use logic al decision making s trategy . it has been f ound tha t ther e is a neg ative and lo w c orr ela tion be tw een logic al decision making s trategy and locus of c on trol. it has also been revealed tha t the individuals with in ternal locus of con trol use logic al decision making s trategies mor e than ones with e xternal locus of con trol and the y enc oun ter less hesit ation. Basım and Sesen 2006 to analy se the tendency of the locus of c on trol t o displa y assis ting and court esy a ttitudes Quan titative It has been iden tified tha t mos t of the participan ts who ha ve been subjects of the s tudy ha ve the in ternal locus of c on trol; the y also have mor e t endencies t o sho w help and c ourt esy attitudes when c ompar ed t o the ones with e xternal locus of c on trol. Sar dog an e t. al. 2006 To ob ser ve the e ffect of 10-session Human Rela tions Skills Educ ation Pr ogr am on Univ ersity studen ts’ le vels of locus of c on trol Quan titative at the end of the s tudy , it has been c oncluded tha t 10-session Human R ela tions Skills Pr ogr am is e ffectiv e on the locus of c on trol le vels of the univ ersity s tuden ts. Rana ÖZEN KUT ANİS & M uammer MESCİ & Z eynep Ö VDÜR 120 Journal of Economic and S ocial S tudies Selart 2005 to r esear ch whe ther locus of c on trol has an e ffect on decision making periods of the or ganiz ations Quan titative it has been de termined tha t the manag ers with lo w internal locus of c on trol have mor e t endencies t o consult t o gr oup decision than the ones with high locus of c on trol do. Additionally , the manag ers with e xternal locus of con trol t ake the r ole of participan t in decision making mor e than the ones with lo w in ternal locus of con trol. Chiu e t. al. 2005 To assess the e ffect of in ternal and external locus of con trol on the locus of c on trol Quan titative it has be en c oncluded tha t the individuals with in ternal locus of c on trol ar e a ffected by the labour turno ver r ate and w ork c on tent in the organiz ation mor e than the ones with e xternal locus of con trol. furthe rmor e, people with e xternal locus of c on trol rather than the ones with internal locus of c on trol ar e influenced b y the s tress on organiz ational participa tion and w ork c on tent. The Effects of Locus of Contr ol on Learning P erformance: A Case of an A cademic 121 Volume 1 N umber 2 J uly 2011 Patten 2005 to look in to the diff erence and corr ela tion be tw een internal c on trol and w ork c on ten t, also be tw een w ork perf ormance and the locus of c on trol variable on an individual Quan titative it has been ascert ained tha t internal locus of c on trol has a close r ela tion with the in ternal f ace t of locus of c on trol. a consider able diff erence be tw een individuals with in ternal con trol and the ones with external c on trol in t erms of the le vel of w ork c on ten t has har dly been seen. apart fr om these, in ternal con trols ha ve been in a clear con tradiction be tw een the locus of c on trol and the structur e of c on trol the y per ceiv e, and this leads t o signific antly lo wer w ork con ten t. Klein and Warne t 2000 to ob ser ve whe ther locus of con trol a ffects the experiences of individuals in their lives Quan titative the r esults of the s tudy have sho wn tha t the internal f ace t of locus of con trol pla ys an import ant role in in fluencing the experiences in people’ s lives. In Table 2, the studies of literatur e r elated to locus of contr ol ar e pr esented. The ef - fects of the internal and external facets of locus of contr ol on individuals ’ attitudes hav e been obser ved in the studies. A t the end of the study , it has been ascer tained that internal locus of contr ol has a much bigger impact on individuals than the external locus of contr ol. M oreover, it has been emphasiz ed that the individuals with internal locus of contr ol hav e mor e activ e wor k motiv ation and por tray mor e effectiv e wor k per formance; they hav e also mor e contr ol on the envir onment. A d- ditionally , the individuals with external locus of contr ol hav e been determined to hav e higher wor k content about their colleagues than the ones with internal locus of contr ol. Rana ÖZEN KUT ANİS & M uammer MESCİ & Z eynep Ö VDÜR 122 Journal of Economic and S ocial S tudies Lear ning P erfor mance in the Context of Locus of Contr ol Learning is a pr ocess during which information r epositor y is pr ocessed, acquir ed, and emerged in a shor t time to make ne w information (M orales, 2009). I t is necessar y to giv e impor tance to learning lev els in or der to per form the learning period activ ely (Tajeddini, 2009). Learning lev els ar e essential in that they can contribute to the ef - fectiv e and useful flo w of the learning period. M entioning about learning, apar t fr om behavioural and cognitiv e changes, one or mor e of these situations ar e accepted to be sufficient (O gütv eren, 2000, cited in. A vcı, 2005); • The person kno ws or understands an idea or a concept which he/she didn ’t kno w befor e. • The person can conduct the attitudes that he/she couldn ’t do befor e or he/she possesses the abilities and skills which he/she didn ’t hav e. • The person combines differ ent information, ability , concept, and attitude which he/she had befor e with a ne w point of vie w. • The person can understand ne w information, concepts and ways of attitudes. Organizational learning is necessar y for cr eating and dev eloping v alue in organi - zations (P ham and S wier czek, 2006). O rganizational learning is a period during which the information, aiming at dev eloping skills and resour ces to contribute to the per formance of organization, is united, acquir ed, and put for war d. F or this r ea- son, it is cr ucial for organization learning to occur in or der to achiev e organizational per formance (P erez et. al., 2005). I n learning ho w to learn, the members of the organization consider the pr evious examples of the learning or learning failur es and try to question and inv estigate them. I n this period, what makes learning easy or prevents it is b y focusing on learning. To be brief , ne w learning strategies ar e str ug - gled to be pr oduced ( Yazıcı, 2001). The organizations which learn in an atmospher e full of indefiniteness, play an essential r ole on using the information in the most ef - fectiv e way , extending this information to the whole organization, practicing it, and taking place again in learning process by acquiring requir ed results (K utanis, 2002). In the last decade learning per formance has become a cr ucial concept o wing that to the impor tance of factors such as the qualities of leaders, the impact of global envir on - ment, information, labour , and technology in O rganizations (M olina and Callahan, 2009). I n literatur e, so many studies determined that ther e is a positiv e corr elation betw een learning and per formance (M ichna, 2009). Learning brings benefits for the organization if it is per formed b y all members. I t is r equir ed to dev elop a cultur e of The Effects of Locus of Contr ol on Learning P erformance: A Case of an A cademic 123 Volume 1 N umber 2 J uly 2011 continuous lea rning, taking r esponsibility , gaining v alue constantly , focusing on flex - ibility and adapting to incr ease the effectiv eness of the organizational learning. The purpose of organizational learning is to incr ease per formance of the organization in the futur e and to pr oduce ne w information which is going to change the attitudes of the emplo yees of the organization (K uru, 2007). Organizational learning includes the period of learning during which they continu - ously dev elop their abilities, ne w and detailed idea patterns, free totalitarian desir es and disco ver ho w to learn cooperativ ely (S enge, 1990, cited in. Weldy , 2009). Limpi - bunterng and J ohri (2009) emphasiz e that impr oving organization ’s per formance is considerably dependent on impr oving learning skills in organizations. As explained b y “Social Learning Theor y”, learning is completely r esulted fr om neither internal for ces emerging psy chologically in individuals nor the changes coming of external for ces. “Learning ” is a period coming out mainly as a consequence of interaction of personal and envir onmental factors (G ür, 2008). Teaching can be described as a series of learning experiences. I n this context, teaching is the collection of activities conducted for students to learn. All the planned learning periods ar e pr epar ed for students to learn. Learning may sometimes be only a transfer of information and in the manner that contributes to the student ’s emotional and social dev elopment (G üngör , 2006). I t is necessar y to assess to what extent learn - ing has occurr ed. By the help of assessment method, students ’ communication skills, behavioural skills, conceptual learning, affectiv e characteristics can be measur ed. Th e qualities of a good assessment can be ranged as belo w (G ünay , 2008); • The data collected at the end of the assessment should be used to identify , under - stand and solv e the pr oblems of the student and learning pr ocess, • The teacher should be giv en the chance to ev aluate student ’s academic success, • Students should be giv en self-assessment b y using the data collected for the as - sessment, • Many assessment activities should assist in planning and applying the education. Although the first studies on organizational learning hav e been dir ected to explain what organizational learning is, later studies hav e generally been aimed at giving light to ho w organizations can turn into learning organizations (Avcı, 2010). For instance; B ayraktar oğlu and K utanis (2003) hav e pointed out that factors such as change of mentality among managers, suppor ting ne w information, cr eation thr oughout the organization, dev eloping a shar ed vision and pr oducing pr oper learning conditions ar e highly impor tant to cr eate the climate of learning organiza - tions in hotels which can be categoriz e as big. Rana ÖZEN KUT ANİS & M uammer MESCİ & Z eynep Ö VDÜR 124 Journal of Economic and S ocial S tudies Data and M ethodology The purpose of this study is to identify what kind of effect locus of contr ol has on stu - dents ’ learning per formance. In addition to this, it has been inv estigated whether stu - dents ’ demographic qualities create a differ ence betw een their attitude proposals about locus of contr ol and learning per formance. Q uantitativ e r esear ch method was used to reach the goals of the r esear ch. The r esear ch included all the students educating at the School of Tourism and H otel M anagement which r eceiv ed the bachelor ’s degr ee. The number of students educated in the academic y ear 2009-2010 at School of Tourism and H otel M anagement who w ere subjects of the study was 450. As the population was at an accessible lev el, full inv entor y method was used. F or this r ea- son, an additional sampling method was not used.
In or der to collect data, the sur vey technique was used. After having analyz ed the literatur e in this context, a questionnair e was pr epar ed to assess the par ticipants ’ locus of contr ol lev els b y r eferring to I nternal-E xternal Locus of Contr ol Scale de - veloped by Rotter (1966) and Learning Scale by Güngör (2006). This ne w question - nair e was finaliz ed b y considering the ideas of two specialists in the field (one is an academician, and the other is the super visor). The questionnair e consists of thr ee par ts. The first par t is the statements which w ere designed to identify the students ’ attitudes to war ds learning per formance. The second par t is the statements aimed at determining the students ’ agr eement about the considerations on students ’ learning per formances w ere ranked in the second par t including a fiv e-point Liker t scale. Finally , ther e ar e some questions to analyse the par ticipants ’ demographic situations. After the pr eparation of the questionnair e, the next step was a pilot-study . In the pilot-study sur vey was conducted among 30 students in the period fr om 25 th Febr u- ary 2010 to 28 th Febr uar y 2010. A t the end of the pilot-study , the r eliability of the data was measur ed and C ronbach alpha value of the gather ed data was calculated as 0,74. A t the end of the study , the general C ronbach alpha v alue of the data was found abo ve 0,7 lev el mentioned b y N unnally (1967). Then, questionnair e was checked again b y the academicians of r elated field and their ideas w ere taken into account. These means pr ovided the content v alidity of the questionnair e. After this process, the sur vey was conducted among all students. While analysing the collected data, SPSS (S tatistics P rogram for S ocial Sciences) 16.0 statistics pr ogram was used. S tatistical terms such as per centage and fr equency w ere The Effects of Locus of Contr ol on Learning P erformance: A Case of an A cademic 125 Volume 1 N umber 2 J uly 2011 used to analyse the demographic data. Statistical analyses with Kr uskal- Wallis and Mann Whitney U analysis methods w ere conducted in or der to understand whether ther e w ere differ ences betw een par ticipants ’ demographic qualities and statements of attitudes. The r eason why these analysis techniques w ere used is that data do not come fr om the normal distribution. M oreover, corr elation criteria (cr osstabs) w ere used to identify the r elation betw een locus of contr ol lev els and factors of learning per formance Empirical R esults 302 of the total 450 distributed questionnair es w ere sur ely returned. This number builds up 67% of the population. The data of the par ticipants about demographic questions w ere assessed b y using fr equency and per centage analysis. The findings about the assessment ar e pr esented in Table 3. Table 3. The r esults about demographic pattern Variable f % Variable f % Gender female 151 50 the high school studen t gradua ted from Regular High school 172 57 Male 151 50 anatolian H. s 43 14,2 total 302 100 tourism H. s 25 8,3 age 17-19 34 11,3 foreign Lang. i. H. s 62 20,5 20-22 200 66,2 total 302 100 23–25 61 20,2 the r egion wher e studen t liv es Marmar a R egion 103 34,1 26 and up 7 2,3 cen tral anatolia R . 57 18,9 total 302 100 aegean R egion 20 6,6 eastern anatolia R . 13 4,3 Year first Year 76 25,2 Medit err anean R . 26 8,6 second Y ear 124 41,1 black sea R . 75 24,8 thir d Y ear 57 18,9 south- eastern a. R . 7 2,3 fourth Y ear 37 12,3 total 301 99,7 Repea t 7 2,3 When Table 3 is obser ved, it is understood that 50% of the students who hav e taken par t in the study w ere female (151), and 50% w ere male. I f w e take students ’ age group into consideration, one can see that 34 students (11,3%) ar e in the age of 17- Rana ÖZEN KUT ANİS & M uammer MESCİ & Z eynep Ö VDÜR 126 Journal of Economic and S ocial S tudies 19 and 200 students (66,2%) ar e betw een 20-22. When the grades of the students are analysed, it is compr ehended that 124 students ar e (41,1%) at second grade, 37 students (12,3%) ar e at four th grade and 7 students who ar e not able to graduate in four y ears. When w e look at the high school that students had graduated fr om, w e can notice that 172 students (57%) w ere r egular high school students, 25 students (8,3%) graduated fr om tourism high school. F inally , when the r egions wher e stu - dents liv e ar e analysed, it is confirmed that 103 students (34,1%) liv e in M armara Region, 13 students (4,3%) liv e in Eastern Anatolia R egion and 7 students (2,3%) liv e in S outh-Eastern Anatolia R egion. As it can be seen in Table 4, the factors which ar e effectiv e on par ticipants ’ learning processes ar e collected under sev en titles, which ar e activity , per ception, listening, abilities, imitation, r eading and noticing. Table 4. The table of factors about learning analysis r esults (n=302) Fact ors Fact or Load Secular V alue Average Variance (%) The Dimension of Concen tration While I am s tudying , I oft en s top and do some thing else. I lik e sport activities a t school and a ttend them. i do wha t i can for e very e ven t tha t i can act and take part in them in class teacher s think tha t i mo ve a lot in the classr oom. i talk t oo much in class. ,778 ,735 ,727 ,718 ,636 4,456 2,92 13,504 The Dimension of P ercep tion and Under standing i hold e very ne w thing in m y hands and ob ser ve them. I learn b y doing and pr acticing. I can under stand be tter when I see things. I lik e the activities which I participa te activ ely . i quickly per ceiv e things sho wed in map s, pos ters and diagr ams. ,700 ,625 ,619 ,612 ,562 3,052 4,13 9,247 The Effects of Locus of Contr ol on Learning P erformance: A Case of an A cademic 127 Volume 1 N umber 2 J uly 2011 The dimension of lis tening I lik e lis tening t o book c asse ttes. i lik e school songs v ery much and i learn them quickly . i lik e r eading aloud. ,750 ,657 ,594 2,014 2,12 6,102 The dimensions of abilities I lik e making pr actic al jok es t o m y friends. I lik e music and rh ythm t o learn be tter. i lik e doing things b y using m y hands. ,756 ,617 ,546 1,661 3,25 5,034 The Dimension of Me thod I pr efer t elling t o writing. i lik e m y t eacher t o c orr ect m y mis takes b y e xplaining them t o me. i’d r ather lis ten t o the t eacher than s tudy b y m yself . I under stand a subject be tter if somebody tells or reads it, rather than r eading it on m y o wn. ,768 ,879 ,582 ,506 1,631 3,33 4,944 The Dimension of R eading i lik e r eading no vels. i lik e t o r ead silen tly. ,796 ,749 1,519 3,74 4,603 The Dimension of Noticing i alw ays w ant to clean the boar d, opening /closing the windo ws or the door . I under stand be tter if e ven ts and subjects ar e dr ama tized. My t eacher s and par en ts oft en t ell me not t o t ouch the objects. ,689 ,599 ,513 1,243 2,22 3,766 Notes: Varimax B asic Components Factor Analysis. Kaiser-M eyer-O lkin Sampling Efficien - cy: 70,7% F or B artlett ’s Test of S phericity X²: 1852,359; s.d: 528; p‹0000 for the whole scale Alpha; , 739; Total v ariance: 43,040%; The liker t scale : 1:I totally disagr ee 5:I totally agr ee When the internal pattern of the activity factor is obser ved, it can be understood that the activities that hav e become prominent are stopping and doing something else while studying, liking and attending (the) spor t activities, mo ving in the classr oom and (in - volving) par ticipating in ev ery ev ent and talking a lot in classes. When the internal pat - tern of per ception factor is analyz ed, factors that draw attention ar e: holding ne w things in hands and obser ving them, learning b y doing and applying, making better sense of the things one sees, enjo ying activities activ ely , per ceiving things with maps, posters, and diagrams. When the internal pattern of listening factor is examined, it is per ceiv ed that the factors that ar e taken into account ar e: liking to listen to book cassettes, enjo y- ing school songs and learning them quickly , and liking to r ead aloud. When the internal str uctur e of ability factors is looked thr ough, factors that become prominent ar e: lo ve to make practical jokes to friends, enjo y music and rhythm to learn better , and liking to do something with hands. After the internal pattern of Rana ÖZEN KUT ANİS & M uammer MESCİ & Z eynep Ö VDÜR 128 Journal of Economic and S ocial S tudies imitating is studied, it has come out that elements that can be distinguished ar e: pre- ferr ed telling to writing, wanting the teacher to corr ect(ing) mistakes b y explaining, listening to the teacher instead of studying b y himself/herself , fav oring somebody else to tell or r ead something rather than r eading it on his/her o wn. When the inter - nal pattern of the r eading factor is vie wed, liking to r ead no vels and silent r eading takes the attention. E ventually , when the internal pattern of the noticing factor is looked into, the elements that stand out ar e: cleaning the boar d in the classr oom, wanting to open/close the windo ws or the door , understanding better with drama - tiz ed ev ents or subjects, and warning of the teachers and the par ents. In this par t it will be obser ved whether ther e ar e any differ ences betw een students ’ demographic gr oups in terms of mean factor . In this context, in Table 5, Kr uskal- Wallis ’s analysis was conducted whether ther e is a differ ence betw een classr oom groups and factor means.
Table 5. Kr uskal- Wallis analysis was conducted with r egar d to whether ther e is a differ ence betw een students ’ classr oom gr oups and factor means Concen tration Percep tion Lis tening Abilities Me thod Reading Noticing chi- squar e 17,736 6,152 7,352 11,949 1,641 3,988 14,950 df 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 asymp. sig. ,001 ,188 ,118 ,018 ,801 ,408 ,005 Accor ding to Table 5, r egar ding whether ther e ar e any differ ences betw een students ’ classr oom gr oups and factor means, the sign v alues which ar e lo wer than 0,05 sho w that the students hav e differ ent opinion about learning dimensions. A t the end of the analysis, it has been identified that ther e is a differ ence betw een concentration factor (,001), competence factor (,018), noticing dimensions (,005) and students ’ continuing classr oom gr oup . Table 6. Kr uskal- Wallis analysis concerning whether ther e ar e any differ ences betw een one of the students ’ age gr oups and factor means Concen tration Percep tion Lis tening Abilities Me thod Reading Noticing chi- squar e 5,457 1,169 6,089 7,103 1,877 3,336 8,492 df 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 asymp. sig. ,141 ,760 ,107 ,069 ,598 ,343 ,037 The Effects of Locus of Contr ol on Learning P erformance: A Case of an A cademic 129 Volume 1 N umber 2 J uly 2011 Accor ding to Table 6, r egar ding whether ther e ar e any differ ences betw een students ’ age and factor means, the sign v alues which ar e lo wer than 0,05 sho w that the stu - dents hav e differ ent opinion about learning dimensions. A t the end of the analysis, it has been identified that ther e is a differ ence betw een student concentration di - mensions (,037) and age gr oups. Table 7. M ann Whitney U analysis r elated to whether ther e is any differ ence betw een students ’ sex gr oups and factors means. Concen tration Percep tion Listening Abilities Me thod Reading Noticing Mann- Whitne y U 9207,500 10441,000 11334,500 10526,500 10689,500 7794,500 9635,500 Wilc oxon W 20683,500 21917,000 22810,500 22002,500 22165,500 19270,500 21111,500 z -3,051 -1,379 -,092 -1,231 -1,007 -4,977 -2,496 asymp. sig. (2-t ailed) ,002 ,168 ,926 ,218 ,314 ,000 ,013 Accor ding to Table 7, whether ther e ar e differ ence betw een students ’ sex and factor means, the sign v alues which ar e lo wer than 0,05 sho w that the students hav e dif - fer ent opinions about their learning dimensions. At the end of the analysis, it has been identified that ther e is a differ ence betw een concentration dimension (,002), reading dimension (,000), noticing dimension (,005) and student sex gr oups. In the r esear ch whether two of the factors of locus of contr ol, internal and external locus of contr ol, affect on learning factors, corr elation coefficients (cr osstabs) hav e been used to conduct the analysis. I n this analysis affecting v ariable is independent and affected v ariable is dependent. I n this study , inter nal locus of contr ol and exter nal locus of contr ol ar e accepted as dependent v ariables; fur ther , lear ning factors ar e defined as independent v ariables. S ome corr elation criteria w ere used while measuring the corr elation among or dinal scale v ariables. S ome of these criteria are S omer d, K endall Tau b , G amma and S pearman corr elation coefficients. These ordinal scales are generally used to measur e the linear relationship among variables. The coefficient gather ed at the end of the analysis take a v alue betw een -1 and 1. I f coefficient is 1, ther e is positiv e full r elation. When it is -1, ther e is negativ e full r ela - tion (O zdamar , 2003). While conducting wor k analysis in this context, corr elation scales w ere used to make it clear whether inter nal and exter nal locus of contr ol has an impact on lear ning factors . Analysis has been done with the 5% r elev ance lev el. Rana ÖZEN KUT ANİS & M uammer MESCİ & Z eynep Ö VDÜR 130 Journal of Economic and S ocial S tudies For this r eason, assessments ar e: if the sign v alue is lo wer than 0,05 “ differ ences exist (effect, corr elations exist)”, if the sign v alue is higher than 0,05, “ no differ ence (no effect, corr elation)”. Table 8. The Corr elation betw een locus of contr ol and abilities factor Corr ela tion Sc ale Coe fficien ts Rele vance somer d ,115 ,028 kendall tau b ,116 ,028 kendall tau c ,134 ,028 Gamma ,201 ,028 Spearman c orr ela tion c oe fficien t ,125 ,030 Geome tric al average (G. a) ,130 Accor ding to Table 8, it has been concluded that the ability factor is not independ - ent fr om locus of contr ol (locus of contr ol affects ability factor) as sign v alues of the corr elation scales ar e lo wer than 0,05 (p=0,028‹0,05). Corr elations coefficients also sho w that ther e is a positiv e and lo w degr ee corr elation betw een locus of contr ol and ability dimension.
Table 9. The Corr elation betw een locus of contr ol and method factor Corr ela tion Sc ales Coe fficien ts Rele vance somer d -,103 ,049 kendall tau b -,104 ,049 kendall tau c -,119 ,049 Gamma -,183 ,049 Spearman c orr ela tion c oe fficien t -,111 ,049 Geome tric al average (G. a) -,112 Accor ding to Table 9, it has been concluded that method factor is not independent from locus of contr ol (locus of contr ol affects method factor) as sign v alues of the corr elation scales ar e lo wer than 0,05 (p=0,049‹0,05). Corr elations coefficients also sho w that ther e is negativ e and lo w degr ee corr elation betw een locus of contr ol and method dimension. The Effects of Locus of Contr ol on Learning P erformance: A Case of an A cademic 131 Volume 1 N umber 2 J uly 2011 Table 10 . The Corr elation betw een locus of contr ol and noticing factor Corr ela tion Sc ales Coe fficien ts Rele vance somer d -,105 ,043 kendall tau b -,106 ,043 kendall tau c -,122 ,043 Gamma -,185 ,043 Spearman c orr ela tion c oe fficien t -,114 ,043 Geome tric al average (G. a) -,123 Accor ding to Table 10, it has been concluded that noticing factor is not independ - ent fr om locus of contr ol (locus of contr ol affects method factor) as sign v alues of the corr elation scales ar e lo wer than 0,05 (p=0,043‹0,05). Corr elations coefficients also display that ther e is negativ e and lo w degr ee corr elation betw een locus of con - trol and noticing dimension.
Conclusion Locus of contr ol focuses on ability to cope with uncer tainty . While the individuals who hav e less tolerance resist to the change, the ones with high tolerance can adapt to the change mor e easily . Ther efor e, locus of contr ol tries to identify the r eaction giv en to change accor ding to its status. I f an individual can make self-contr ol and has the belief that he/she is the dominant of his/her fate, he/she can giv e positiv e reactions to the change. I ndividuals ar e classified in two gr oups accor ding to locus of contr ol. The first group is internals, and the other is externals. The individuals with internal locus of contr ol hav e the belief that they can monitor the events or situa - tions with their o wn fate and they hav e a str ong belief in themselv es and their abili - ties in life. They believ e that the r eactions that they take fr om envir onment ar e the causes of their attitudes. On the other hand, the individuals with external locus of contr ol r elate the ev ents and situations, success or failur es to the factors not r elated to them. For example, they attribute success to backing; ho wever, they base failur e upon envir onmental factors (K utanis, 2010; S argut, 2001). Sargut (2001) s tates that ther e ar e some indicators illustrating in general that Turkish people hav e a tendency to be highly external. H e highly r elates these indicators av oiding uncer tainty and the grade of being external in the examina - tions applied betw een students and the administration. A t the end of our r esear ch, it Rana ÖZEN KUT ANİS & M uammer MESCİ & Z eynep Ö VDÜR 132 Journal of Economic and S ocial S tudies is understood that students generally hav e internal locus of contr ol. A dditionally , it has drawn a conclusion that the students with internal locus of contr ol agr ee upon the ability , method, and noticing factors of the learning dimensions mor e when compar ed to the students with external locus of contr ol. I n the cultur es wher e being internal is prevailing, individuals str uggle to acquir e the information about their wor k. These effor ts gr eatly contribute to the settlement of the cultur e and incr ease of the efficacy . In the study conducted b y B asım and S esen (2006), it has been determined that most of the subjects had internal locus of contr ol and individuals with internal locus of contr ol had mor e tendencies to help and per form cour teous attitudes when com - par ed with the ones with external locus of contr ol. Chen and Silv erthorne (2008) hav e also mentioned that these qualities of the individuals with internal locus of contr ol hav e considerable impact upon wor k per formance and content lev els. I n our resear ch, in the light of analysis regar ding the effect of locus of contr ol on students ’ learning pr ocesses, it has been ascer tained that locus of contr ol has a vital influence on method, ability , and noticing factors of the learning dimensions. The findings of the r esear ch sho w similarities with the studies conducted b y B asım and S esen (2006) and Chen and S ilv erthr one (2008). Some analyses hav e been applied r egar ding whether ther e is any differ ence betw een students ’ demographic gr oups and learning. A t the end of the analysis of ques - tioning whether ther e is any differ ence betw een, one of the students ’ demographic groups, y ear and learning dimensions, it has come out that the students hav e dif - fer ent ideas betw een grade and the concentration, abilities, and noticing factors of learning. I t has been r esear ched why ther e is a differ ence betw een the students ’ grades and concentration factors; also, it has been determined that first-y ear stu - dents and second-y ear students, and first grade students and r epeaters do not shar e the same idea. When w e obser ve wher e the differ ence betw een grades and abilities factors arise fr om it has been identified that second and first graders, thir d and first graders, and first and second graders think in differ ent ways. I t has been questioned wher e the differ ence betw een grade and noticing factors emerges fr om; and the r e- sult is that second graders and r epeaters hav e differ ent opinions. The analysis conducted on the differ ence among the students ’ demographic gr oups, age and learning has sho wn that they think differ ently among students ’ age and noticing factors. I n which gr oup this differ ence exists is analysed and it has been revealed that the students in the age gr oup of 23-25 own v arious ideas. A ccor ding to the analysis conducted on the differ ence betw een one of the students ’ demographic groups, sex and learning, it has been ascer tained tha t students hav e v arious ideas betw een their sex, concentration, r eading, and noticing factors. B esides, it has been understood that the female students ha ving taken par t in the study hav e external locus of contr ol while their male peers hav e internal locus of contr ol. The Effects of Locus of Contr ol on Learning P erformance: A Case of an A cademic 133 Volume 1 N umber 2 J uly 2011 In this study , the collected findings and the scales used ar e impor tant contributions. The scales used in this study can be suitable for other organizations operating in dif - fer ent sectors. B y means of those scales organizations will get the chance to make assessments and identify the fields wher e they will face a pr oblem. I dentification of the pr oblematic fields and r esolving them will help the successful application of locus of contr ol and learning implementation. The second impor tant contribution of the r esear ch is that the students with internal locus of contr ol hav e got a bigger ratio than the ones with external locus of contr ol. Ther e ar e some constraints of the study . While assessing the finding of the study , these constraints should be consider ed. F irst of all, this study is conducted in a tourism col - lege which giv es bachelor ’s degr ee. S ome differ ent findings may be r eached in v arious Univ ersities which giv e education in differ ent r egions and branches faculties/depar t- ments. Another constraint of the study is that it considers only Univ ersity students. It can be suggested for r esear chers who ar e going to conduct studies that they can per form in-depth studies taking other U niv ersities in differ ent r egions and fields into account. 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