Hello this assignment is not that complicated you just have to find the answers from the slide of week 5 and week 6 that I have attached. I have also attached the assignment question paper . this assi

Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Chapter 25 Sustainable Cities Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Key Concepts • Cause and control of urban growth • Major resource and environmental problems in urban areas • Effects of transportation systems in urban growth • Making cities more sustainable and livable 2 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. U rbanization and Urban Growth • Currently , 54% of people live on 2% of the world’s land area . • Canada’s biggest city (Toronto) is relatively small . National Geophysical Data Center/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and United Nations. 3 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. What C auses U rban G rowth ? • Natural growth • Immigration Rural PUSH • Poverty • Lack of agricultural jobs or land • Famine • War PULL • Employment • Food and housing • Entertainment • Freedom from racial, religious, political conflict Urban ▪ Can be influenced by government policies 4 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Worldwide Patterns of U rbanization and U rban G rowth • Increased proportion of population in urban areas • From 2 % to 54% from 1850 to 2014 • Increased number of large cities • 2014 : 28 megacities (>10 million people) • Rapidly increasing urbanization in developing nations • Slower urban growth in already heavily urbanized developed nations • Poverty becoming increasingly urbanized 5 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Five Major Trends 1. The proportion of the global population living in urban areas is increasing . 2. The number of large cities is mushrooming . 3. Urbanization and urban populations are increasing rapidly in developing countries . 4. Urban growth is slower in developed countries . 5. Poverty is becoming urbanized in developing countries . 6 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. How Urbanized I s Canada? Phases of U rban M igration 1. From rural areas to large central cities 2. From city centres to suburbs or smaller cities 3. From East to West 4. From urban back to rural (post-1990) 7 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. What I s Urban Sprawl? Growth of low-density development at the periphery Canadian Geographic, May/June 2006. • Ample available land • Government-facilitated housing • Automobile accessibilty • Cheap gas + highways • Tax law favours home ownership • Zoning laws • Poor urban planning due to political jurisdiction issues 8 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. What A re S ome of the E ffects of U rban S prawl ? • Land and Biodiversity • Loss of cropland, forest, grassland; fragmentation of wildlife habitat; increased soil erosion • Human Health and Aesthetics • Contaminated drinking water, noise pollution, traffic congestion • Water • Contamination; increased groundwater use; increased flooding; lower natural sewage treatment 9 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. • Energy, Air , and Climate • Increased energy use, waste, air pollution, greenhouse emissions • Economic Effects • Higher taxes; higher unemployment; decline in downtown business districts 10 What A re S ome of the E ffects of U rban S prawl? Continued Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Urban Areas: Inputs v ersus Outputs Urban areas are not self-sustaining systems . Inputs Energy Food Water Raw materials Manufactured goods Money Information 11 Outputs Solid wastes Waste heat Air pollutants Water pollutants Greenhouse gases Manufactured goods Noise Wealth Ideas Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Noise Pollution 12 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Light Pollution • Stargazing • Astronomical research • Changing animal migration • Aquatic ecosystems, algae and water quality Muskoka Heritage Foundation 13 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Case Study:

Urban Poor in Developing Countries • Slums • Illegal settlements • Squatter settlements • Shantytowns • Crowding • Absence of sanitation and limited services • Poverty and unemployment • Better access to services and community than rural 14 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Transportation and Urban Development • Land availability • Determines growth pattern of a city • Vertical or horizontal • Determines viable transportation options • Individual or mass transit Compact cities • Hong Kong, Tokyo Dispersed cities • in Canada, the United States 15 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. What I s the R ole of M otor V ehicles in Canada? In North America, • 5% of world population = 33% of all cars Cars are used for • 98% of urban transportation • 90% of commuting and • 75% of trips are less than 1.6 km from home • 75% of commuting cars are single-occupant 16 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. What Are the Advantages and Disadvantages of Motor Vehicles? Advantages • Personal mobility • Convenience • Job creation • Auto industry • Roads, services, etc . Disadvantages • Kill or injure people • Air pollution • Promote urban sprawl • Congestion • Economic costs 17 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. How Can We Reduce Automobile Use? Strategies • Taxation • Tolls • Car-free zones • Car-sharing networks • Telecommuting • Strategies Challenges • Political opposition • Public • Auto industry • Absence of alternative transit infrastructure 18 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Bicycles: Trade-offs Advantages • Affordable • Produce no pollution • Quiet • Require little parking space • Easy to manoeuvre in traffic • Take few resources to make • Very energy efficient • Provide exercise Disadvantages • Little protection in an accident • Do not protect riders from bad weather • Not practical for trips longer than 8 kilometres (5 miles) • Can be tiring (except for electric bicycles) • Lack of secure bike parking 19 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Motor Scooters: Trade-offs Advantages • Affordable • Produce less air pollution than cars • Require little parking space • Easy to manoeuvre in traffic • Electric scooters are quiet and produce little pollution Disadvantages • Little protection in an accident • Does not protect drivers from bad weather • Gasoline engines are noisy • Gasoline engines emit large quantities of air pollutants 20 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Mass Transit Rail: Trade-offs Advantages • More energy efficient than cars • Produces less air pollution than cars • Requires less land than roads and parking areas for cars • Causes fewer / injuries and deaths than cars • Reduces car congestion in cities Disadvantages Expensive to build and maintain Cost effective only along a densely populated narrow corridor Commits riders to transportation, schedules Can cause noise and vibration for nearby residents 21 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Buses: Trade-offs Advantages • More flexible than rail system • Can be rerouted as needed • Cost less to develop and maintain than heavy-rail system • Can greatly reduce car use and pollution Disadvantages Can lose money because they need low fares to attract riders Often get caught in traffic unless operating in express lanes Commits riders to transportation schedules Noisy 22 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Rapid Rail: Trade-offs Advantages • Can reduce travel by car or plane • Ideal for trips of 200-1000 kilometres ( 120-620 miles) • Much more energy efficient per rider over the same distance than a car or plane Disadvantages • Expensive to run and maintain • Must operate along heavily used routes to be profitable • Causes noise and vibration for nearby residents 23 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Conventional Land-Use Planning • Prioritizes growth and development • Typically poorly controlled expansion • Reliance on property taxes encourages expansion 24 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Using Zoning to Control Land Use Advantages • Can be used to control growth • Protect areas from some types of development For example, zone for high-density development along mass transit corridor Disadvantages • Developers exert considerable influence • Favours high-priced developments over environmental/social concerns • Disfavours innovation due to strict zoning 25 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Smart Growth Tools: Solutions Figure 25-15 Solutions Smart Growth Tools Smart growth or new urbanism tools used to prevent and control growth and sprawl Limits and regulations ● Limit building permits. ● Set urban growth boundaries.

● Establish greenbelts around cities.

● Allow for public review of new developments.

Zoning Limits and regulations ● Limit building permits. ● Set urban growth boundaries.

● Establish greenbelts around cities.

● Allow for public review of new developments.

Planning ● Ecological land-use planning ● Environmental impact analysis ● Integrated regional planning ● Provincial and national planning Protection ● Preserve existing open space.

● Buy new open space.

● Buy development rights that prohibit certain types of development on land parcels. Taxes ● Tax land, not buildings.. ● Tax land based on value of actual use (such as forest and agriculture), instead of highest value as developed land.

Tax breaks ● For owners agreeing legally to not allow certain types of development (conservation easements) ● For cleaning up and developing abandoned urban sites (brownfields) Revitalization and new growth ● Revitalize existing towns and cities.

● Build well-planned new towns and villages within cities. © teekid /Getty Images © Teddy Leung/ Shutterstock © Alastair Wallace/ Shutterstock 26 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Preservation of Urban Open Spaces: Ottawa Canadian Geographic, May/June 2006 27 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Preservation of Urban Open Spaces: Vancouver and Toronto 28 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Different Visions of Neighbourhood Development 29 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Making Urban Areas More Livable and Sustainable Ecocity / Green C ity • Preventing pollution and reducing waste • Efficient use of energy and matter • Recycle and reuse > 60% of solid waste • Solar and other renewable resources • Protect biodiversity by land preservation • Urban gardens and farm markets • Green design of buildings 30 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Spotlight: Vancouver - A Showcase for Urban Renewal • Vertical neighbourhoods • Attracting people to downtown core to both live and work • Sustainable community on False Creek • Features safe travel routes: A downtown safe for children © Roy LANGSTAFF/ Alamy Stock Photo 31 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Urban Rooftop Gardens • Cover roof with vegetation • Advantages:

• Insulation • Lower summer temperatures • Improve water quality • Carbon sink • Add natural habitat • Local food • Beauty © Alison Hancock/Shutterstock 32 Copyright © 2017 by Nelson Education Ltd. Conclusion • Urbanization has advantages and disadvantages, both ecologically and economically . • Transportation is a major challenge . • Creative urbanization can create more sustainable cities . 33