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DBA 7420, Organizational Behavior and Comparative Management 1 Cou rse Learning Outcomes for Unit VII Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to: 6. Examine how differentiating characteristics factor into organizational behavior. 6.1 Summarize motivation in organizations. 6.2 Assess work -related attitudes such as feelings about the job, organization, and people at work. 6.3 Examine emotions and their impact on t he job. Course/Unit Learning Outcomes Learning Activity 6.1 Unit Lesson Unit VII Annotated Bibliography 6.2 Unit Lesson Chapter 3, pp. 74 –94 Chapter 4, pp. 102 –128 Unit VII Annotated Bibliography 6.3 Unit Lesson Chapter 3, pp. 74 –94 Chapter 4, pp. 102 –128 Unit VII Annotated Bibliography Reading Assignment Chapter 3 : Attitudes and Job Satisfaction, pp. 74 –94 Chapter 4 : Emotions and Moods, pp. 102 –128 Unit Lesson Introduction As humans, we all deal with an influx of emotions and moods daily . How many times have you heard people dreading that Monday was approaching? How many times have you overheard people celebrating that Friday arrived? Life happens, and we all must deal with how we feel about that. We have all heard people identify some as having a good attitude or a bad attitude, but what does that really mean? Many people think of outlooks or perspectives about something when thinking about attitudes ; h owever, it is much mor e complex than that. In this unit , we will learn about emotions and moods and how they can influence our attitudes. We will also explore how they impact the workplace and what this means for managers. Emotions and Moods As we begin to delve into a discus sion on feelings, we need to have a solid understanding of some basic terminology. Key words include affect, emotions, and moods. Everyone experiences each of these from time to time ; h owever, few fully understand the difference. Would you know how to dist inguish an emotion from a mood? UNIT VII STUDY GUIDE Attitudes, Emotions, and Impacts DBA 7420, Organizational Behavior and Comparative Management 2 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title Whenever we experience something, it tends to affect us in some way. The effect can encompass a broad range of feelings from good to bad. Regardless of where the effect is on the scale, it is how we feel. An emotion, in thi s instance, is a short -lived feeling based upon a specific event that occurred in our life (Robbins & Judge, 2019 ). In contrast, a mood is more of a longer -term emotion that is less intense and not necessarily specific to a life event. When we consider th e many events that occur in the workplace, any of these may trigger an emotion or lead to a mood. What sets many of us apart from others is something known as emotional intelligence. This emotional intelligence is an ability to not only be in tune with our emotions and that of others . We need to be able to understand how we should handle and respond to those emotions while doing so in a way in which we remain respectful to others and still comply with social expectations (Robbins & Judge, 2019). Applicatio ns in the Workplace In daily living, everyone experiences a broad range of emotions. Some are good; others are not. Some are positive, and others are not. The workplace is no exception. Managers and leaders should not endeavor to remove emotion from the workplace. Instead, the focus should be on modeling positive emotions and moods so that others will choose to exhibit those same types of behaviors. Would you not prefer to work in a place where everyone is working in harmony? Doing so can lead to a more p ositive attitude among co -workers, and customers notice this. The customers themselves are going to benefit from that through improved custom er service. However, what workers may not initially realize is the impact that they have on the overall mood or cul ture of the organization based upon one’s attitude. Components of an Attitude To understand what an attitude truly is, we must consider the three components that constitute an attitude. These include affective, behavioral, and cognitive components (Robb ins & Judge, 2019). An affective component pertains to a feeling or emotion. A behavioral component relates to how we behave or react to something. Finally, the cognitive component concerns an opinion or belief. W ith all three working together, this consti tutes an attitude (Robbins & Judge, 2019). For instance, the cognitive component can lead to a feeling about something. The example included in the reading relates to one’s pay. If one feels as though he or she is not being paid enough, this could lead the individual to not look favorably at the current position, the affective element of an attitude. If one fe els as though he or she is being paid quite well for the work done, then this could also lead to another feeling (affective component) such as really enjoying the work being done and an appreciation for the organization. In both cases, these two elements can then lead to the third component of an attitude, and that is the behavioral aspect. Consider that if a person does not view one’s current position favorably due to the amount of pay received, this individual might choose to look for other employment or even strive to do less work . These same workers may opt to perform based upon the amount of work they belie ve warrants the amount of pay. Conversely, if one does view one’s position favorably, might the person choose to stay with the company and pursue a career path within the organization? Might this same individual strive to do even better because of the v iew of the position? Indeed, it is all about attitude and the three components working together. Relationship b etween Attitudes and Job Behaviors Attitudes can be predictors of behavior (Robbins & Judge, 2019). This can be seen when looking at one’s response to job satis faction or job dissatisfaction. Those attitudes that are seen as good and positive often can lead one to feelings of satisfaction. Those attitudes that are less than optimal can often lead to dissatisfaction. In both cases, the determination is based on the individual’s view of one or more elements such as job conditions, personality of individual, pay, organizational culture, or an organization’s practice (or lack thereof) of corporate social responsibility (Robbins & Judge, 2019). Impacts of Job Satis faction One person’s attitude —positive or negative —can spread to other workers’ attitudes throughout a unit, department, or organization. Those positive attitudes can lead to job satisfaction which has a number of benefits. The first can be seen when obse rving job performance. Those workers who are happy tend to be more productive. That satisfaction with job performance typically leads to expressing appreciation for an DBA 7420, Organizational Behavior and Comparative Management 3 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title organization, coming to the aid of other co -workers or employees, and going above and be yond the minimum set of requirements for the job. This is what is known as organizational citizenship behavior. As these same employees gladly interact with the customers daily , the same job satisfaction can also lead to increased customer satisfaction. Th is same satisfaction also leads to an overall satisfaction with life in general. The ripple effect becomes increasingly evident. Impacts of Job Dissatisfaction For all the good that can come from job satisfaction, the impacts from job dissatisfaction can also be seen in four perspectives . The se responses are based on a two -dimensional framework consisting of constructive or destructive and active or passive possibilities (Robbins & Judge, 2019). If an individual is looking at a constructive and active res ponse, this would indicate a voice response. In other words, the individual would engage in suggesting ways to improve, talking with others in upper echelons about the problem, and perhaps initiating change for the better. On the other hand, if the individ ual is looking at a destructive and active response, this would lead to an exit response where the individual si mply leaves the organization seeking employment elsewhere and even become s very active in recruiting others to leave , while repeatedly talking down the organization and its management . If the focus is on passive responses, a constructive option might be to focus on loyalty to the organization while remaining positive and awaiting change. Conversely, the passive and destructive response would be a neglect response ; whereas , the individual ignores the problem, but this results in the condition worsening to the point the employee bec omes late more frequently if he or she even comes in , and there is the potential for an increase in the number of errors made. Implications for Managers The outcomes from both job satisfaction and dissatisfaction can impact not only the organization itself, but it can also influence the customers of the or ganization. The challenge for managers is to remain cognizant of the environmental circumstances and monitor those who work there to create a satisfied workforce. The challenges are great, but the outcomes from such actions are even greater. Those organiza tions that do maintain a satisfied workforce can typically expect to see an increase in profits, more organizational effectiveness, and improved customer satisfaction. Conclusion In this unit , we have learned the difference between emotions and moods and how those influence our attitudes. While all are inter -related, there are differences to be understood. It is through this understanding that managers are able to ascertain the wants and needs of the workforce in order to provide aid and guidance so as to achieve that optimum outcome in serving the customer base. While no one ever said it would be easy, it is certainly going to be worth it. Customers will appreciate the positivity exuded by the workers, and this will ultimately bring forth even greater pro fits. Reference Robbins, S. P., & Judge, T. A. (2019). Organizational behavior (18th ed.). New York , NY : Pearson.