Prepare this assignment as a 1,500-1,750 word paper using the instructor feedback from the previous course assignments and the guidelines below. PICOT Question Revise the PICOT question you wrote in1 Rough Draft Qualitative Research Critique and Ethical Considerations Name Institution name Course Name Professor Name Date Commented [A1]: Your title should detail your PICOT/subject of your paper 2 Rough Draft Qualitative Research Critique and Ethical Considerations Two qualitative research articles I chose from the week 1 assignment include Home oxygen therapy in patients with COP D (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ): safety issues for nurse prescribers (Article 2) and the impact of community pharmacy -led medicines management support for people with COPD (Article 3) . The first research study explains why chain smokers are mostly affected by COPD than non -smokers. COPD is an inflammatory lung disease that is always characterized by airway obstr uction. COPD is a disease that damages the lungs over time, and it affects the way people breath e (López -Campos, Gallego & Hernández, 2019 ). The COPD condition is caused by long -term exposure to the irritants like cigarette smoke and other irritating gases that can damage the lu ngs. The PICOT question is on whether adults with COPD use pharmaceutical drugs like bronchodilators and antibiotics to boost their recovery rate compared to oxygen therapy and nutrition. People with chronic COPD are at the risk of developing other complications like heart problems, high blood pressure, lung cancer, and depression. This research study in article two aims to critically evaluate the issue that poses challenges to RNS (respiratory nurse specialist) , an independent prescriber. In article three, the purpose was to determine the effect of pharmaceutical medicine management support (in addition to the routine annual nurse -led reviews for long -term conditions) in patients with COPD in one community nursing team in Sheffield. Estimates are that America has at least 30 million people with COPD condition. This condition is always progressive but treatable. How Two Chosen Articles Support Nurse Practice Article two will be relevant in answering the PICOT qu estion because it discusses how oxygen therapy effectively prescribes it to patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Commented [A2]: Two authors should be format like this: ( López -Campos et al., 2019) Commented [A3]: Is this your background or introduction? You should always include an intro and you need to incl ude a level one heading for your background that details both articles and their relation to your PICOT Commented [A4]: Specify the article by the title or authours 3 Oxygen treatment helps raise the amount of oxygen flowing to the lungs and bloodstream of the patient with COPD. If the COPD is chronic, the blood oxygen level is very low. Therefore, getting additional oxygen helps extend the life span of those suffering from the disease because it makes them breathe better. Oxygen therapy is done by using oxygen -gas cylinders, oxyg en concentrato rs, or liquid -oxygen devices. The article states that oxygen systems are always portable, and there is no need to stay at home or get admitted to the hospital to use oxygen. Patients in this condition can still use oxygen while doing their daily tasks. It is advisable for people who use oxygen not to smoke . Oxygen should also not be used in open flames or around lit cigarettes. Without considering oxygen treatment carefully, there may be a danger of explosion or fire. After oxygen therapy, the treatm ent may improve the quality of life. It may help the COPD patient live longer since shortness of breath is reduced, and the patient regains energy (Rogliani et al., 2017) . Those who have rapid, severe, and sometimes high shortness of breath can get oxygen from the hospitals to make sure that they are under the doctor's care. Article three relates to the research question by discussing the use of bronchodilators which are u sually administered using handheld inhalers. Bronchodilators are used for the treatment of COPD because they relieve bronchial obstruction, hyperinflation, airflow limitation and improves the ability of the lung to empty wastes and perfo rm well (George & B ender, 2019) . This article highlights the guidelines for using bronchodilators in the process of managing COPD. It is essential to treat COPD patients with good classes of bronchodilators that are friendly to the patien ts. Regular treatment of COPD with l ong -acting bronchodilators doesn't reduce lung problems. This means that before the treatment of COPD patients with Bronchodilators is Commented [A5]: Which article? Use the title or the authors Commented [A6]: Expend why this is the case Commented [A7]: This does not need to be i talic ized 4 ascertained, these devices' improvement is necessary. It is not clear if the difference in these devices has a clinical r ole in COPD treatment. The symptoms of COPD patien ts vary from time to time. During morning hours is when the symptoms are considered severe. According to this article's hypothesis, fast -acting agents are effective on the morning symptoms of COPID than tho se w ith a slow onset of actions in providing relief after the morning dosing. A prompt symptom relief gives an assurance of the effectiveness and is the key factor behind patient compliance. The interventions of the two articles are similar to the PICOT question. The question is the use of oxygen therapy to increase the rate of re covery from COPD. Article two answers the first issue about oxygen therapy and factors that would lead a person to use oxygen at home or in the hospital. Article three provides a solution on the importance of bronchodilators in extending the life of a pati ent who suffers from COPD. The group of people used in both article’s study can be compared with the group selected for the PICOT question. Both studies were conducted on adults and can be used for an adult population aged greater than 18 years with COPD. Methods of Study Article two uses qualitative research method. They include already filled questionnaire that explains the risk of patients that use oxygen at home. Nurses have supplied this questionnaire, and it is essential in determining the best way to treat COPD. Article three uses observations a s the research method. The observation where pharmacy personnel was sent how inhalers were being used was recorded in the study. The use of Questionnaire is different from the observation method by the fact that a questionnaire provides the responses from patients while in observation the researcher needs to draw their own conclusions. The information obtained thru the questionaries was limited to pre -filled information on the questionnaire. Commented [A8]: Which article Commented [A9]: Where is the citation to support this content? Commented [A10]: Do not capitalize it 5 Additional information may be available which was not part o f the questionnaire. The observation could be limited to the observer’s knowledge and experience. The observation method is beneficial in knowing the effectiveness of home oxygen therapy. Questionnaire is important in collecting research data because the i nformation collected is more reliable and valid. Study Results and Implications in Nursing Practice In article two , the author’s findings were: the risks associated with oxygen use at home include; fire hazards that would cause skin burns and even deat h to the patients. This is because oxygen is not supposed to be used near the fire. After all, it could cause an explosion. The author’s findings in article three were that many patients lack knowledge on how to use inhalers. Patients with cognitive impairment have limited options to get a proper administration of medicine. The two studies are essential for those in nursing practice . Nurses can use the information provided to offer guidance and counseling to patients with COPD. They will explain to them the disadvantages of smoking while using oxygen. They will also advise them on installing fire safety equipment that wou ld reduce fire accidents. Nurses will be able to use other therapies when a patient has dementia, and it is difficult for them to use inhalers. Ethical Considerations While conducting the research study, it is vital to ensure that ethical considerations a re maintained. The researcher should maintain a high level of transparency and honesty while collecting data from different official websites (Arifin, 2018) . Respect and discipline is another ethical factor that should be considered while analyzing the data and presenting results. Respondents of research mostly react well when the researcher respects them and puts their ideas and values in consideration. Commented [A11]: Which article Commented [A12]: Where are the citations to support the results? You should include specific study results with proper citations. Commented [A13]: How so? Commented [A14]: Specify the specific ethica l considerations for each study 6 The authors of these two articles maintained a high degree of ethics. They used words of humility wh ile explaining how the use of oxygen therapy and bronchodilators would extend patients' lives with COPD. They were not biased in providing useful information that would save lives when nurses use it appropriately. They were open to providing information ab out where they researched from. They did not reveal any confidential information from the two places where they sourced their research information. It is by ethics that the researchers were able to interact well with nurses and obtain relevant information for their research study. Conclusion COPD is an inflammatory lung disease characterized by airway obstruction at all times. The treatment can improve the quality of life after oxygen therapy. The morning symptoms of COPID are effective with rapid -acting agents. Risks associated with oxygen us age at home include fire risks that may cause patients skin burn and even die. Since shortness of breath is minimized and the patient regains energy, the medication will help the COPD patient live longer.
A solution to the importance of bronchodilators in extending the life of a patient suffering from COPD was discussed in details in Article 3 . The information given can be used by nurses to provide advice and counseling to patients with COPD. While collecting data, researchers should uphold transparency and fairness. 7 References Arifin, S. R. M. (2018). Ethical considerations in qualitative study. International Journal of Care Scholars , 1(2), 30 -33. George, M. , & Bender, B. (2019). New insights to improve treatment adherence in asthma and COPD. Patient preference and adherence , 13, 1325. López -Campos, J. L., Gallego, E. Q., & Hernández, L. C. (2019). Status of and strategies for improving adherence to COPD tr eatment. International journal of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease , 14, 1503. Rogliani, P., Ora, J., Puxeddu, E., Matera, M. G., & Cazzola, M. (2017). Adherence to COPD treatment: myth and reality. Respiratory medicine , 129 , 117 -123. Commented [A15]: Remove this comma Commented [A16]: Journal titles are capitalized Commented [A17]: Correctly capitalize the journal titles