magine that you are a mineralogist and you have just received a single, small sample of a mineral with which you are not familiar. Discuss how you might go about identifying that mineral using some of the mineral identification properties discussed i

ES 1010, Earth Science 1 Cou rse Learning Outcomes for Unit I Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to: 1. Describe the scientific method to include how scientific theories evolve. 2. Differentiate levels of matter that compose the Earth’s continental crust. 2.1 Discuss the characteristics of atoms, elements, compounds, and minerals. 2.2 Identify the most important elements that compose the Earth’s continental crust. 3. Identify processes that shape the Earth’s landscapes to include their role in the rock cycle. 3.1 Examine both the external and internal processes that shape the Earth’s landscapes and their role in the rock cycle. Re ading Assignment Introduction: Introduction to Earth Science Chapter 1 : Matter and Minerals Chapter 2: Rocks: Materials of the Solid Earth Watch the following videos Williams, C. [IDT -CSU]. (2015, August 8). Weathering of rock [Video file]. Retrieved from Click here to access a transcript of the video. Williams, C. [IDT -CSU]. (2015, August 7). Environmental impacts of mining [Video file]. Retrieved from Click here to access a transcript of the video. In order to access the resource below, you must first log into the MyCSU Student Portal and access the Academic OneFile database within the CSU Online Library. What are technology and engineering? (2009). The Ohio Journal of Science , 109 (2), 40. UNIT I STUDY GUIDE Introduction to Earth Science, Earth Materials ES 1010, Earth Science 2 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title Unit Lesson On December 24th, 1968, Apollo 8 astronaut William A. Anders snapped a picture of the Earth as it was rising over the moon. This photo was named Earthrise , and quickly became one of the most influential and inspiring photographs ever taken. Why was this photograph so groundbreaking? In short, it changed our perspec tive of our planet. Once considered vast and limitless, this new view of the Earth portrayed a perfect tiny sphere — with finite resources, vulnerable to over -use and abuse. It is no coincidence that just over a year after this photograph was taken, the firs t Earth Day was celebrated on April 22, 1970. As you begin this course, the first question you might have is, “Why study the Earth?” The answer should be obvious: we study the Earth because this is our home. All of our resources ultimately come from the E arth — our fresh water, food, fuel, oxygen, and shelter. Besides our basic necessities, the Earth also provides resources for recreation and technology. Societies have learned to extract our Earth’s minerals to use as raw materials in the construction of bui ldings and machines. Understanding the water cycle has allowed us to replicate parts of it to purify our drinking water. The study of the atmosphere has led to understanding and predicting weather patterns and climate. Studying tectonic forces influences h ow we respond to earthquakes and volcanoes. W e can learn about the amazing history of our Earth through information preserved in rocks and minerals — the formation and movement of continents, changes in climate and vegetation, and the diversity of life. In s hort, the study of Earth Science encompasses all aspects of our lives. Lutgens and Tarbuck (2014) define Earth Science as "the name for all sciences that collectively seek to understand the Earth and its surrounding space. It includes Geology, Oceanograph y, Meteorology, and Astronomy" (p. 4). We will begin our course of study in the introductory reading of Foundations of Earth Science; it is there that you will be introduced to the Scientific Method, the four spheres of the Earth, and some other fundamentals of general science. To supplement the information in the textbook, we have also included a brief article to give you a general ove rview of science, the scientific method, hypotheses, and theories. We will start by discussing what science is and what science is not. Science is an attempt to understand the natural world. This is done through observation and experiments, which leads to the development of a hypothesis — a testable explanation of what has been observed. The goal of science is to find evidence to reject the hypothesis. This leads to further testing and experiments. However, if all evidence and testing fails to lead to the rejection of the hypothesis, it may be elevated to the status of a sci entific theory . As opposed to the term ‘theory’ used in the layman context, a scientific theory is one that has been rigorously tested and widely accepted as the best explanation of observable facts. For example, gravity is a scientific theory, though most people would regard it as a law. However, it has not been tested on every atom and every star, therefore it remains “only a theory.” In this course, we will discuss many scientific theories, so it is important to understand this concept. The Earth is div ided into four spheres: the hydrosphere, atmosphere, biosphere , and geosphere . All water on Earth makes up the hydrosphere which is a dynamic mass in constant motion. The water cycle will be studied in later chapters. The gases surrounding our Earth make u p the atmosphere, providing air to breathe, protection from harmful rays, and weather patterns. All life on Earth constitutes the biosphere, beneath which lies the geosphere — the solid Earth. Each of these spheres influences the other spheres. In this cours e, you will study each these spheres in depth, starting with the geosphere. In the study of the geosphere, you will learn about the materials that make up the Earth. You will first review the structure of atoms, including the sub -atomic particle, and how they form bonds with other atoms. You will understand the difference between chemical, ionic, covalent, and metallic bonds, and how each form. You will review the table of known elements and discuss general characteristics of the different groups of elemen ts that affect the strength and types of bonds. You will also learn which eight elements make up over 98% of the The Earth is seen rising above the lunar horizon from the Apollo 8 spacecraft . (NASA, 1968) ES 1010, Earth Science 3 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title Earth’s crust. In addition, you will investigate the fundamentals of radioactive decay and how it relates to modern techniques for dating rocks (to be covered in more detail in later chapters). A mineral is a naturally occurring inorganic crystalline material with a unique chemical composition. This gives each mineral a unique set of physical and chemical properties. These unique properties make minerals valuable in so many different ways. You are likely very familiar with some of the more common minerals, using them on a daily basis. Minerals occur in a fascinating palette of color and a wide variety of shapes.

They also vary in hardness and may even have a distinctive taste or scent. You will come to know these distinctive properties that geologists and mineralogists use to classify and identify the almost 4,000 known minerals. Minerals are divided into two main groups: silicates, and non -silica tes. Silicates are made up of the most common of Earth’s elements: Oxygen and Silicon, and constitutes nearly 90% of the Earth’s crust. Non - silicates are rarer, but are also more economically important —forming materials for construction, automobiles, elect ronics, and so much more. Moving into Chapter 2, you will examine and diagram the Rock Cycle, which explains the occurrence of igneous, sedimentary , and metamorphic rocks and the continuum involved in the natural recycling of these materials. Through the rock cycle, you will learn how each rock can be transformed into each other type of rock, through both external (such as erosion) and internal (mainly tectonic) processes. These processes form igneous rock from the cooling of melted rock (magma). As rocks are broken apart and the sediments are transferred through water, wind, and ice, they eventually accumulate and solidify to form sedimentary rocks.

Under intense heat and pressure, rocks can be chemically changed to form metamorphic. These processes will b e covered in greater detail in subsequent chapters. Although rocks appear to be solid and unbreakable, external processes are continually weathering rock.

Weathering is the change in rock in response to a new environment. Perhaps a rock that was deeply bu ried in the Earth is now exposed to the elements. There are two forms of weathering —mechanical, which is the breakdown of rock into smaller particles, and chemical, which alters the internal structure of the rock.

Common processes of mechanical weathering include frost wedging (when water gets into the cracks of rocks, freezes, and expands), exfoliation or sheeting (when a rock is released from pressure and expands), and biological activity (the growth of tree roots or animal activity). Chemical weathering often requires water to decompose rock. This can take place through oxidation of iron -rich minerals or the dissolving of carbon dioxide to form carbonic acid. Both types of weathering work in tandem to gradually break down rock. The general types of rock will be examined in more detail. You will learn how the texture of rock can reveal its origin and history. For example, the rate at which magma cools will determine the size of the rock particles. A closer look at sedimentary rocks can reveal past climates and landscapes. Metamorphic rock can show the incredible tectonic forces that created mountains. You will become familiar with granitic, andesic, basaltic and ultramafic classifications of igneous rocks, as well as detrital and chemical sedimentary rocks. You will see how these rocks can be transformed into metamorphic rock such as slate, schist, gneiss, and marble. Overall, the study of Earth Science will open your eyes to the world around you. In this course, not only will you start to recognize the mat erials found every day, but you will begin to understand the processes that formed them. A “rock” will now mean something to you — it will have a name, a history, and be part of an on - going process of recycling. You will have a deeper appreciation for the ti mescale of geologic processes. You will start to recognize the significance of landforms in your area that perhaps you never noticed before. Most importantly, you will recognize our dependence and connection to the Earth and the need to conserve and protec t our ultimate resource for life. References Lutgens, F. K., & Tarbuck, E. J. (2014). Foundations of Earth science (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. (1968). Earthrise at Christmas [Photograph]. R etrieved from ES 1010, Earth Science 4 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title Suggested Reading The links below will direct you to both a PowerPoint and PDF view of the Chapter 1 and 2 Presentations. This will summarize and reinforce the information from these chapters in your textbook. Click here to access the Chapter 1 PowerPoint Presentation. (Click here to access a PDF version of the presentation.) Click here to access the Chapter 2 PowerPoint Presentation. (Click here to access a PDF version of the presentation.)