civil war

Constitution of the Confederate States We, the people of the Confederate S tates , each S tate acting in its sovereign and independent character, in order to form a per manent federal governm ent, establish justice, insure dom estic tranquillity, a nd secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity --invoking the favor and guidance of Al mighty God-- do ordain and establish this Constitution fo r the C onfederate S tates of Am erica. A RTICLE I. Section I. All legislative powers herein delegated shall be vested in a Congress of the Confederate States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives. Section II. 1. The House of Representatives sh all b e com posed of m embers chosen every second year by the people of the several Stat es; and the electors in each State shall be citizens o f the Confederate States, a nd have the qualifications requisite for electors of the m ost num erous branch of the State Legislature; but no person of foreign birth, not a citizen of the Confeder ate States, shall be allowed to vote for any officer, civil or political, S tate or Federal. 2. No person shall be a Representative w ho shall no t have a tta ined the age o f twenty-five years, and b e a citizen o f the Confederate States , and who shall not when elected, be an inhabitant of that State in which he shall be chosen. 3. Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned am ong t he several States, which m ay be includ ed within th is C onfederacy, accord ing to their resp ective num bers, which shall be determ ined by adding to the whole num ber of free persons, including those bound to service fo r a term of years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three-f ifths of all slaves . ,The actual enum eration shall be m ade within three years after th e first m eeting of the Congress of the Confederate States, and within every subsequent term of ten years, in such m anner as they shall by law direct. The n umber of Representatives shall no t exceed one for every fifty thousan d, but each State sh all h ave at leas t one Representative; and until such enum eration sh all b e m ade, the State of South Carolina shall be entitled to choose six; the State of Georgia ten; th e State of Alabam a nine; the S tate of Florida two; the State of Mississipp i seven; the State of Louisiana six; and the State of Texas six. 4. When vacancies happ en in the repres entation fro m any State the execu tiv e author ity th ereof shall iss ue writs of election to f ill such vac ancies. 5. The House of Representatives shall choose their Speaker and other officers; and shall h ave th e sole power of i mpeachm ent; except that any ju dicial or o ther Federal officer, resident and acting solely within the lim its of any State, m ay be im peached by a vote of two-thirds of both branch es of the Legislature thereof. Section III. 1. The Senate of the Confeder ate States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, chosen for six years by the Le gislature thereof, at the regular session next immediately preceding the commencemen t of the term of service; and each Senator shall have one vote. 2. Immediately after they shall be assemble d, in consequence of the first election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three classes. The seats of the Senators of the first class shall be vacated at the expiration of the second year; of the second class at the expiration of the f ourth year; and of the third class at the expiration of the sixth year ; so that one-third may be chosen every second year; and if vacancies happen by resignation, or other wise, during the recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive th ereof may make temporary appointments until the next meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill such vacancies. 3. No person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained the age of thirty years, and be a citizen of the Confederate States; and who shall not, then elected, be an inhabitant of the State for which he shall be chosen. 4. The Vice President of the Confederate States shall be president of the Senate, but shall have no vote unless they be equally divided. 5. The Senate shall choose their other officer s; and also a president pro tempore in the absence of the Vice President, or wh en he shall exercise the office of President of the Confederate states. 6. The Senate shall have the sole power to try all impeachments. When sitting for that purpose, they shall be on oath or affirmation. When the President of the Confederate States is tried, the Chief Jus tice shall preside; and no person shall be convicted without the conc urrence of two-thirds of the members present. 7. Judgment in cases of impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from office, and disqualification to hold any o ffice of honor, trust, or profit under the Confederate States; but the party convic ted shall, nevertheless, be liable and subject to indictment, trial, judgment, and punishment according to law. Section IV. 1. The times, places, and manner of holding elections for Senators and Representatives shall be prescribed in each State by the Legislature thereof, subject to the provisions of this Const itution; but the Congress may, at any time, by law, make or alter such regulations, except as to the times and places of choosing Senators. 2. The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year; and such meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall, by law, appoint a different day. Section V. 1. Each House shall be the judge of the elec tions, returns, and qualifications of its own members, and a majority of each shall constitute a quorum to do business; but a smaller number may adjourn from da y to day, and may be authorized to compel the attendance of absent members, in such manner and under such penalties as each House may provide. 2. Each House may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish its members for disorderly behavior, and, with the concu rrence of two-thirds of the whole number, expel a member. 3. Each House shall keep a j ournal of its proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting such parts as may in their judgment require secrecy; and the yeas and nays of the members of either H ouse, on any question, shall, at the desire of one-fifth of those present, be entered on the journal. 4. Neither House, during the session of Congre ss, shall, without the consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting. Section VI. 1. The Senators and Representatives shall r eceive a compensation for their services, to be ascertained by law, and paid out of the Treasury of the Confederate States.

They shall, in all cases, except treason, felony, and breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their attendance at the session of their respective Houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for any speech or debate in either House, they shall not be questioned in any other place. 'o Senator or Representative shall, during the time fo r which he was elected, be appointed to any civil office under the authority of th e Confederate States, which shall have been created, or the emoluments whereof shall have been increased during such time; and no person holding any office under the Confederate States shall be a member of either House during his con tinuance in office. But Congress may, by law, grant to the principal officer in each of the Executive Departments a seat upon the floor of either House, with the privilege of discussing any measures appertaining to his department. Section VII. 1. All bills for raising revenue shall originat e in the House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with amendments, as on other bills. 2. Every bill which shall have passed both Hous es, shall, before it becomes a law, be presented to the President of the Confeder ate States; if he approve, he shall sign it; but if not, he shall return it, with his objections, to that House in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the objections at large on their journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If, after such reconsideration, two-thirds of that House shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be se nt, together with the objections, to the other House, by which it sha ll likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two- thirds of that House, it sha ll become a law. But in all such cases, the votes of both Houses shall be determined by yeas and nays, and the names of the persons voting for and against the bill shall be entered on the journal of eac h House respective}y.

If any bill shall not be returned by th e President within ten days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the same shall be a law, in like manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress, by their adjournment, prevent its return; in which case it shall not be a E law. The President may approve any appropriation and disapprove any other a ppropriation in the same bill. In such case he shall, in signing the bill, desi gnate the appropriations disapproved; and shall return a copy of such appropriations, with his objections, to the House in which the bill shall have orig inated; and the same proceedi ngs shall then be had as in case of other bills disapproved by the President. 3. Every order, resolution, or vote, to which the concurre nce of both Houses may be necessary (except on a question of adjournment) shall be presented to the President of the Confederate States; and befo re the same shall take effect, shall be approved by him; or, being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two-thirds of both Houses, according to the rules and li mitations prescribed in case of a bill. Section VIII. The Congress shall have power- 1. To lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts, and excises for revenue, necessary to pay the debts, provide for the common de fense, and carry on the Government of the Confederate States; but no bounties sha ll be granted from the Treasury; nor shall any duties or taxes on importations fr om foreign nations be laid to promote or foster any branch of industry; and all duties, imposts, and excises shall be uniform throughout the Confederate States. 2. To borrow money on the credit of the Confederate States. 3. To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian tribes; but neither this , nor any other clause contained in the Constitution, shall ever be construed to delegate the power to Congress to appropriate money for any in ternal improvement intended to facilitate commerce; except for the purpose of furnishing lights, beacons, and buoys, and other aids to navigation upon the coasts, and the improve ment of harbors and the removing of obstructions in river navigation; in all which cases such duties shall be laid on the navigation facilitated thereby as may be necessary to pay the costs and expenses thereof. 4. To establish uniform laws of naturaliza tion, and uniform laws on the subject of bankruptcies, throughout the Confederate States; but no law of Congress shall discharge any debt contracted be fore the passage of the same. 5. To coin money, regulate the value thereof, and of foreign coin, and fix the standard of weights and measures. 6. To provide for the punishment of counterfe iting the securities and current coin of the Confederate States. 7. To establish post offices and post routes ; but the expenses of the Post Office Department, after the Ist day of March in the year of our Lord eighteen hundred and sixty-three, shall be paid out of its own revenues. 8. To promote the progress of science and us eful arts, by securing for limited times to authors and inventors the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries. 9. To constitute tribunals inferi or to the Supreme Court. 10. To define and punish piracies and fe lonies committed on the high seas, and offenses against the law of nations. 11. To declare war, grant lette rs of marque and reprisal, and make rules concerning captures on land and water. 12. To raise and support armies; but no appropria tion of money to that use shall be for a longer term than two years. 13. To provide and maintain a navy. 14. To make rules for the government and re gulation of the land and naval forces. 15. To provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws of the Confederate States, suppress insurrections, and repel invasions. 16. To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining the militia, and for governing such part of them as may be employed in the service of the Confederate States; reserving to the States, respectively, th e appointment of the officers, and the authority of training the militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress. 17. To exercise exclusive legisl ation, in all cases whatsoever , over such district (not exceeding ten miles square) as may, by cession of one or more States and the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the Government of the Confederate States; and to exercise like authority over all places purchased by the consent of the Legislature of the State in which the sa me shall be, for the . erection of forts, magazines, arsenals, dockyards, and other needful buildings; and 18. To make all laws which shall be necessa ry and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the Confederate States, or in any department or officer thereof. Section IX. 1. The importation of negroes of the African race from any foreign country other than the slaveholding States or Territories of the United States of America, is hereby forbidden; and Congress is required to pass such laws as shall effectually prevent the same. 2. Congress shall also have power to prohi bit the introduction of slaves from any State not a member of, or Territory not belonging to, this Confederacy. 3. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in cases of rebellion or invasion the public safety may require it. 4. No bill of attainder, ex post facto law, or law denying or impairing the right of property in negro slaves shall be passed. 5. No capitation or other direct tax shall be la id, unless in proportion to the census or enumeration hereinbefore directed to be taken. 6. No tax or duty shall be laid on article s exported from any State, except by a vote of two-thirds of both Houses. 7. No preference shall be given by any regul ation of commerce or revenue to the ports of one State over those of another. 8. No money shall be drawn from th e Treasury, but in consequence of appropriations made by law; and a regular statement and account of the receipts and expenditures of all public money sh all be published from time to time. 9. Congress shall appropriate no money from the Treasury except by a vote of two- thirds of both Houses, taken by yeas and nays, unless it be asked and estimated for by some one of the heads of departments and submitted to Congress by the President; or for the purpose of paying its own expenses and contingencies; or for the payment of claims against the Confed erate States, the justice of which shall have been judicially declar ed by a tribunal for the invest igation of claims against the Government, which it is hereby made the duty of Congress to establish. 10. All bills appropriating money shall specify in Federal currency the exact amount of each appropriation and the purposes fo r which it is made; and Congress shall grant no extra compensation to any public contractor, officer, agent, or servant, after such contract shall have been made or such service rendered. 11. No title of nobility shall be granted by the Confederate States; and no person holding any office of profit or trust under them shall, without the consent of the Congress, accept of any present, emolument, office, or title of any kind whatever, from any king, prince, or foreign state. 12. Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging th e freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to asse mble and petition the Government for a redress of grievances. 13. A well-regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed. 14. No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house without the consent of the owner; nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law. 15. The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures , shall not be violated; and no warrants shall issue but upon probable cause, s upported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be sear ched and the persons or things to be seized. 16. No person shall be held to answer for a capital or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual service in time of war or public danger; nor shall any person be subjec t for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor be compelled, in any crim inal case, to be a witness against himself; nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property without due process of law; nor shall private propert y be taken for public use, without just compensation. 17. In all criminal prosecutions the accuse d shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the natu re and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor; and to have the assistance of counsel for his defense. 18. In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved; and no fact so tried by a jury shall be otherwise reexamined in any court of the Confederacy, than according to the rules of common law. 19. Excessive b ail sh all no t be required, nor excessive fi nes im posed, nor cruel and unusual punishm ents inflicted. 20. Every law, or resolution having the f orce of law, shall relate to but one subject, and that shall be expr ess ed in the title. Section X. 1. No State sha ll en ter into any tre aty, a lliance, or confederatio n; gran t le tte rs of marque and reprisal; coin m oney; make a nything but gold and silver coin a tender in paym ent of debts; pass any bill of attainder, or ex post facto law, or law im pairing th e obligation of contract s; or grant any title of nobility. 2. No State shall, without the consent of the Congress, lay any imposts or duties on im ports or exports, except what m ay be absolu tely necessary for executin g its inspection laws; and the ne t produce of all duties and im posts, laid by any State on im ports, or exports, shall be for the use of the Treasury of the Confederate States; and all such laws shall be subject to the revision and c ontrol of Congress. 3. No State shall, without the consent of Congress, lay any duty on tonnage, except on seagoing vessels, for the im provem ent of its rivers and harbors navigated by the said vessels; bu t such duties sh all not conf lic t with any tre atie s of the Confederate States with foreign nations ; and any surplus revenue thus derived shall, after m aking such im prove ment, be paid into the com mon treasury. Nor shall any State keep troo ps or ships o f war in time of peace, enter into any agreem ent or com pact with ano ther S tate, or with a foreign power, or engage in war, unless actua lly inv aded, or in s uch imm inent danger as will not admit of delay. But w hen any river divides or flow s through two or m ore States they m ay enter into co mpacts with each other to im prove the navigation thereof. A RTICLE II. Section I. 1. The executive power sh all be v ested in a Pres ide nt of the Confederate States of Am erica. He and the Vice Presiden t s hall ho ld their offices for the term of six years; bu t th e Presiden t s hall no t be r eelig ible. Th e Presiden t a nd Vice Pres ident shall b e ele cted as f ollo ws: 2. Each State s hall appo int, in such m anner as th e L egislature th ereof m ay di rect, a num ber of electors equal to the whole num ber of Senators and Representatives to which the State m ay be entitled in the C ongress; but no Senator or Representative or person holding an office of trust or pr ofit under the Confederate S tates shall be appointed an elector. 3. The electors shall m eet in their resp ec tive S tate s and vote by ballo t f or Pr esiden t and Vice President, one of wh om, at leas t, shall n ot be an inh abitan t of th e sam e State with th em selves; th ey shall name in their ballots the person voted for as Presiden t, a nd in distinc t ballots the person voted for as Vice Presiden t, and they shall m ake distin ct lis ts o f all persons voted for as Pr esident, and of all persons voted for as Vice President, and of the number of votes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit, sealed, to the seat of the Government of. the Confederate States, directed to the Presid ent of the Senate; the President of the Senate shall,in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates, and the vote s shall then be counted; the person having the greatest number of votes for President shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointe d; and if no person have such majority, then from the persons having the highest num bers, not exceeding three, on the list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the President the votes shall be taken by States~the representation fr om each State having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a memb er or members from two-thirds of the States, and a majority of all the States shall be necessary to a choice. And if the House of Representatives shall not choos e a President, whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before th e 4th day of March next following, then the Vice President shall act as Presiden t, as in case of the death, or other constitutional disability of the President. 4. The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice President shall be the Vice President, if such number be a ma jority of the whole number of electors appointed; and if no person have a major ity, then, from the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose th e Vice President; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. 5. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible to that of Vice President of the Confederate States. 6. The Congress may determine the time of choosing the electors, and the day on which they shall give their votes; whic h day shall be the same throughout the Confederate States. 7. No person except a natural-bo rn citizen of the Confederate; States, or a citizen thereof at the time of the a doption of this Constitution, or a citizen thereof born in the United States prior to the 20th of D ecember, 1860, shall be eligible to the office of President; neither shall any person be eligible to that office who shall not have attained the age of thirty-five year s, and been fourteen years a resident within the limits of the Confederate Stat es, as they may exist at the time of his election. 8. In case of the removal of the President from office, or of his death, resignation, or inability to discharge the powers and duties of said office, the same shall devolve on the Vice President; and the Congress may, by law, provide for the case of removal, death, resignation, or inability, both of the President and Vice President, declaring what officer shall then act as President; and such officer shall act accordingly until the disability be removed or a President shall be elected. 9. The President shall, at stated times, receive for his services a compensation, which shall neither be incr eased nor diminished during the period for which he shall have been elected; and he shall not receive within that period any other emolument from the Confederate States, or any of them. 10. Before he enters on the execution of his o ffice he shall take the following oath or affirmation: "I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the office of President of the Confederate States, and will, to the best of my ability, preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution thereof." Section II. 1. The President shall be Commander-in-Chief of the Army and Navy of the Confederate States, and of the militia of th e several States, when called into the actual service of the Confederate States; he may requi re the opinion, in writing, of the principal officer in each of th e Executive Departments, upon any subject relating to the duties of their respective offices; and he shall have power to grant reprieves and pardons for offenses against the Confederate Stat es, except in cases of impeachment. 2. He shall have power, by and with the advi ce and consent of the Senate, to make treaties; provided two-thirds of the Senators present concur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the advice and consent of the Senate shall appoint, ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, judges of the Supreme Court, and all other officers of the Confederate States whose appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by law; but the Congress may, by law, vest the appointment of such inferior officers, as they think proper, in the President alone, in the courts of law, or in the heads of departments. 3. The principal officer in each of the Executive Departments, and all persons connected with the diplomatic service, may be removed from office at the pleasure of the President. All other civil officers of the Executive Departments may be removed at any time by the Presid ent, or other appointing power, when their services are unnecessary, or fo r dishonesty, incapacity. inefficiency, misconduct, or neglect of duty; and when so removed, the removal shall be reported to the Senate, together with the reasons therefor. 4. The President shall have power to fill all vacancies that may happen during the recess of the Senate, by granting commissions which shall expire at the end of their next session; but no pe rson rejected by the Senate sh all be reappointed to the same office during their ensuing recess. Section III. 1. The President shall, from time to time, give to the Congress information of the state of the Confederacy, and recommend to their consideration such measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary occasions, convene both Houses, or either of them; and in case of disagreement between them, with respect to the time of adjournment, he may adjourn them to such time as he shall think proper; he shall rece ive ambassadors and other public ministers; he shall take care that the laws be fait hfully executed, and shall commission all the officers of the C onfederate States. Section IV. 1. The Preside nt, Vice Pre sident, and a ll c ivil officers of the Confederate S tates, shall b e rem oved from office on im peach ment for and conviction of treason, bribery, or other high crim es and m isdem eanors. A RTICLE III. Section I. 1. The judicial power of the Confederate St ates shall be vested in one Suprem e Court, and in such inferior courts as the Congress m ay, from tim e to tim e, ordain and establish. The judges, both of the Supr em e and inferior courts, shall hold their offices durin g good behavior, and sh all, at st ated tim es, receiv e for their services a com pensation which shall not be dim inished during their continuance in of fice. Section II. 1. The judicial power shall extend to all cases aris ing under th is Constitu tion , the laws of the Confederate States, and treat ies m ade, or which shall be m ade, under their autho rity; to all cas es affecti ng am bassadors, other public m inisters and consuls; to a ll ca ses of admiralty and m aritim e jurisdiction; to controve rsies to which the C onfederate S tates shall b e a party; to controversies between two or more States ; between a S tate and citizens of another State, where th e State is plaintiff; between citizens claim ing lands under grants of different States; and between a State or the citizens thereo f, and foreign states, citizens, or subjects; but no State sh all be sued by a citizen o r subject of any foreign state. 2. In all cases affecting ambassadors, other public m inisters and consuls, and those in which a S tate shall be a party, th e Suprem e Court shall have original jurisdiction. In all the othe r cases before m entioned, the Suprem e Court shall have appellate jurisdiction both as to law and fact, with such excep tions and under such regulations as the Congress shall m ake. 3. The trial of all crim es, except in cas es of im peac hm ent, shall be by jury, and such trial sha ll be held in the State wher e the sa id cr im es shall have been comm itted; but when not comm itted within any S tate, the trial shall b e at s uch place o r places as the Congress m ay by law have directed. Section III. 1. Treason against th e Confederate States shall consist only in levying war against.them , or in adhering to their en em ies, giving them aid and comfort. No person shall be convicted of treason unle ss on the testim ony of two witnesses to the sam e overt act, or on confession in open court. 2. The Congress shall have power to decl are the punishm ent of treason; but no attainder of treason shall wo rk corruption of blood, or forfeitu re, excep t d uring th e lif e of the pe rson attainted. A RTICLE IV. Section I. 1. Full faith an d credit shall be given in each State to the public acts, record s, and judicial proceedings of every other Stat e; and the Congress may, by general laws, prescribe th e m anner in which such acts, records, and proceedings shall be proved, and the effect thereof. Section II. 1. The citizens of each State shall be en titled to all the priv ileges and imm unities of citizens in th e several States; and shall have the right of transit and sojourn in any State of this Confederacy, with their s lav es and other property; and the right of property in said slaves sha ll not be thereby im paired. 2. A person charged in any State with tr eason, felony, or other crim e against the laws of such State, who shall flee from justice, and be found in another S tate, shall, on dem and of the executive authorit y of the State from which he fled, be delivered up, to be rem oved to the S tate having jurisdiction of the crim e. 3. No slave or other person held to service or labor in any State or Territory of the Confederate States, und er the laws th ereo f, escap ing or lawfully carried into another, shall, in consequence of any la w or regulation therei n, be discharged from such service or labor; but shall be delivered up on claim of the party to whom such slave belongs; or to whom such service or labor m ay be due. Section III. 1. Other Sta tes m ay be adm itted into this Conf ederacy by a vo te of two-thirds of the whole House of Representatives and two-th irds of the Senate, the Senate voting by States; but no new State shall be f orm ed or erected within the jurisdiction of any other S tate, nor any State be form ed by the junction of two or m ore States, or parts of States, without the consent of the Legislatures of the States concerned, as well as of the Congress. 2. The Congress shall have power to dispos e of and m ake all needful rules and regulations concerning the pr operty of the Confe derate St ates, including the lands thereof. 3. The Confederate States m ay acquire new territory; and Congre ss shall have power to legislate and provide governm ents for the inhab itan ts of all territory b elonging to the Confederate States , lying witho ut the lim its of the severa l Sates ; and m ay perm it them , at such tim es, and in such m anner as it m ay by law provide, to for m States to be adm itted into the Conf ederac y. In all such terr ito ry the institu tion of negro slavery, as it now exists in th e Confederate States, sh all be recogn ized and protected by Congress and by the Territorial governm ent; and the inhabitants of the several Confederate States and Territories shall have the right to tak e to such Territory an y slaves lawf ully held by them in any of th e States or Territories of the Confederate S tates. 4. The Confederate States shall gu aran tee to every State that no w is, or hereafter may becom e, a m ember of this Confed eracy, a republican form of governm ent; and shall protect each of them agains t invas ion; and on application of the Legislature or of the Executiv e when the Legislature is not in session) against dom estic violence. A RTICLE V. Section I. 1. Upon the dem and of any three S tates, legally assem bled in their several conventions, the Congress shall summon a c onvention of all the States, to take into cons ide ration such a mendments to th e Constitution as the said States shall concur in suggesting at the tim e when the said dem and is m ade; and should any of the proposed am endm ents to th e Constitu tion b e agreed on b y the said convention~ voting by States~and the sam e be ratified by the Legislatures of two- thirds of the several States, or by conventi ons in two-thirds thereof~as the one or the other m ode of ratification m ay be proposed by the general convention~ they shall thencef orward form a part of th is Constitu tio n. But no State shall, without its consent, be deprived of its equa l rep resenta tion in the Senate. A RTICLE VI. Section I. The Governm ent established by this Constitu tion is the su cce ssor of the Provisional Governm ent of the Confederate States of Am erica, and all th e laws passed by the latter shall con tinue in force until the sa me shall be repealed or modified; and all the officers appointed by the sa me shall re main in off ice until their success ors are appo inted and qualified, or the offices abolished. Section II. All debts contracted and engagem ents ente red into before the adoption of this Constitu tion shall b e as valid ag ains t the Conf ederate S tate s under th is Constitu tion , as under th e Provision al Governm ent. Section III. This Constitution, and the laws of the Confederate States m ade in pursuance thereof, and all treaties m ade, or which shall be m ade, under the authority of the Confederate States, shall be the suprem e law of the land; and the judges in every State sh all b e bound thereby, anythin g in the con stitu tion o r laws of any State to the contrary notwithstanding. Section IV. The Senators and Representatives bef ore m entioned, and the m embers of the several State Legislatures, and all execu tive and judicial officers, both of the Confederate States and of the several St ates, shall be bound by oath or affirm ation to support this Constitution; but no religious test sha ll ever be required as a qualification to any office or public trust under the Confederate States. Section V. The enum eration, in the Constitu tion , of cer tain rights shall n ot be cons trued to deny or disparage others retained by the people of the several States. Section VI. The powers not deleg ated to the Con federate States by the Co nstitu tion, n or prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States, respe ctive ly, or to the people thereof. A RTICLE VII. 1. The ratification of the conventions of fi ve States s hall be sufficient for the estab lishm ent of this Co nstitu tion b etween the States so ratif ying the s ame. 2. When five States shall have ratified this Constitution, in the manner before specified, th e Congress under the Provisiona l Constitu tion sh all p rescribe the tim e for holding the election of President and Vice Pres ident; and for the m eetin g of the Electoral College; and fo r counting the votes, and inaugurating the President. They shall, also, prescribe the tim e fo r holding the first election of m embers of Congress un der th is Constitu tion, an d the tim e for assem bling the sam e. Until the assem bling of such Congress, the Congr ess under the Provisional Constitution shall contin ue to exe rcis e the legis lative powers granted them ; not extending beyond the tim e limited by the Constituti on of the Provisional Governm ent. Adopted unanim ously by the Congress of the Confederate S tates of South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabam a, Mi ssissippi, Louisiana, and Texas, sitting in convention at the capito l, in th e city of Mo ntgom ery, Ala., on the eleventh day of March, in the year eighteen hundred and sixty-one. HOWELL COBB, President of the Congress. South Carolina: R. Barn well Rhett, C. G. Me mm inger, Wm. Porcher Miles, Jam es Chesnut, Jr., R. W . Barnwell, W illia m W . B oyce, Lawrence M. Keitt, T. J. W ithers. Georgia: Francis S. Bartow, Martin J . Craw ford, Benjam in H. Hill, Thos. R. R. Cobb. Florida: Jackson Morton, J. Patton Anderson, Jas. B. Owens. Alabam a: Richard W . Walker, Robt. H. Sm ith, Colin J. McR ae, W illiam P. Chilton, Stephen F. Hale, David P. L,ewis, Tho. F earn, J no. Gill Sho rter, J. L. M. Curry. Mississipp i: Alex. M. Clayton, Jam es T. Harriso n, W illiam S. Barry, W . S. W ilson, Walker Brooke, W. P. Harris, J. A. P. Campbell.

Louisiana: Alex. de Clouet, C. M. Conrad, Duncan F. Kenner, Henry Marshall.

Texas: John Hemphill, Thomas N. Waul, J ohn H. Reagan, Williamson S. Oldham, Louis T. Wigfall, John Gregg, William Beck Ochiltree.