HCA415: Community & Public Health-

- 1 - 1 1. Avis typo [Avi Stein] Running Header: LUTHER T. TERRY 1 Contributions to Public Health: Luther T. Terry/Smoking Altonice Cox HCA415: Community & Public Health Instructor: Avis Stein July 31, 2017 - 2 - 1 2 3 4 1. Introduction Section headers are not necessary. However if you do use them in your paper, they must be in proper APA style. [Avi Stein] 2. Keep all line spacing in APA at double space. You have an extra 8pt after each line. [Avi Stein] 3. this must have initiated the interest to venture into medicine as a career.

Is this an assumption? [Avi Stein] 4. Your paper would benefit from a more defined introductory paragraph. The introduction should 'introduce' the paper to the reader. It generally starts out very broad, and narrows the thought process into more specific statements leading into a strong thesis statement.

The thesis statement should let the reader know what they will be learning in your paper.

[Avi Stein] LUTHER T. TERRY 2 Contributions to Public Health: Luther T. Terry/Smoking Introduction Born in September 15 th 1911, in the small town of Red Level Alabama, Luther Leonidas Terry started interacting with medicine as his father’s chemist at a very tender age and this must have initiated the interest to venture into medicine as a career. His career was of much interest considering that he was the 9 th Surgeon general of the United States (Brandt, 2007).

School life Luther L. Terry went to Birmingham Southern College in 1931 from where he attained his B.S degree and he then joined the Pi Kappa Alpha group. The Kappa Alpha fraternity was integral in his receiving his Master’s degree from the Tulane University in 1935. His first major posting was the internship that he undertook at the Hillman Hospital followed by the residency at Cleveland Hospital. By 1938 he had already specialized in pathology and he joined the Washington University for his internship on the same. By 1939 he was already an instructor in the University and he rose through the ranks to an assistant professor focusing on public health and preventive medicine in the University of Texas (Brandt, 2007). He stayed at this University from 1940 to 1942 and he is famed for the milestone projects that he initiated at the same University.

Public life and career His career in the public life started in 1942 when he joined the Public Health Service Hospital. In 1943, he became the Chief of medical services. A growing interest in cardiovascular research prompted his acceptance of the Chief of General Medicine and Experimental Therapeutics in 1950 and his first station was at Bethesda. The Heart Instituted Program was - 3 - 1 2 3 4 5 1. The Indent the first sentence of a paragraph with five spaces.

[Avi Stein] 2. surgeon general, This is a proper name.

Proper names should always be capitalized. [Avi Stein] 3. drafted a major report Why did he start researching this? Who told him to do this? [Avi Stein] 4. his committee What is so important about this specific committee? [Avi Stein] 5. What about the climate of the period? How was smoking perceived by the public? [Avi Stein] LUTHER T. TERRY 3 later moved to the new National Institute of Health Clinical Center in 1953. His period as the assistant professor in John Hopkins University was integral in creating the golden era of cardiovascular clinical investigation (Brandt, 2007).

The ascent of John F Kennedy to power marked his ultimate rise when the president selected him as the Surgeon General of the Public Health. As the surgeon general, he drafted a major report that laid emphasis on the dangers of smoking to the health of the human being. This included the argument that cigarette smoking was directly related to lung cancer among other diseases. Conditions such as emphysema among other cardiovascular diseases were also mentioned among the possible effects of smoking (Brandt, 2007). Some of the recommendations that his committee made included the need for the companies producing cigarettes to clearly indicate the dangers of smoking on the cigar packs that they sold in the market.

His period as the surgeon general was very influential in the increased awareness of the effects of tobacco across the region and as a result, there was widespread concern on the effects of tobacco especially on the health of the individual.

Barriers at the time Widespread increase in smoking promoted the report by the surgeon general. The increased addiction to nicotine and related substances had led to an increase in cardiovascular disease in the country ( Burney, 1957). As the Surgeon General, Terry was in direct contact with the rising cases courtesy of his position. This spurred the study on the probable causes of the rise in the cardiovascular diseases. His interest in cardiovascular diseases was also integral in the formulation of the report as well as the zeal with which it was implemented ( Eileen, 1964 ). - 4 - 1 2 1. This is great information.

But what other adversities did he face? (ie. tobacco companies and some of congress) [Avi Stein] 2. I typo [Avi Stein] LUTHER T. TERRY 4 Among the key obstacles the Surgeon General faced was the issue of personal space and personal choices ( Eileen, 1964 ). The ethical element in smoking was one of the key arguments that was fronted by many critics who argued that smoking was a personal choice that an individual willingly made. This meant that they did not see anything wrong with an individual smoking away his cigarettes and as such, the critics did not see the need of the Surgeon general to get so involved in the lives of smokers. The idea of an individual being the architect of his own life was the key argument that most people used to oppose the report that meant the establishment of controls in the tobacco industry. Smoking was considered a personal choice and by design, an individual’s expression of free will (Brandt, 2007).

The underling argument against Terry’s ideas was that smoking was an individual affair hence, the government had no place I regulating it (Brandt, 2007). The critics opined that smoking was not a communal activity and the dangers could only be experienced by the smoker alone and as such, the government had no place in initiating controls on individual choices.

Overcoming the challenge Overcoming the challenge was not quite hard for the Surgeon General. The only way to overcome the increasing opposition was to change the terms of the argument. The surgeon general argued that smoking was not only harmful to the individual’s health, but it had increased effect on the passive smokers who also needed to be protected. Passive smokers included those who interacted with the smokers. Exposing women and children to cigarrete smoke was equal to smoking two sticks a day and this was very harmful to their health. This finding provided the evidence that the government then needed to initiate regulations on smoking. - 5 - 1 1. But what changed? Can you show an impact? [Avi Stein] LUTHER T. TERRY 5 This regulation was quite crucial in public health and courtesy of Luther Terry, the entire public would be shielded from the dangers of smokers. These regulations led to a decrease in the cardiovascular diseases among the general public marking a very useful input in public health.

Contribution to public health Luther L. Terry played a very critical role in establishing of public health scrutiny of range of dangers posed by the smoking and general tobacco use. As a surgeon working in public health, Luther pioneered research into the prolonged effects of tobacco use. One of the key research projects that had propelled Luther into the public limelight as a project done in 1960s. In his research paper, Dr. Luther had highlighted how cigarette smoking significantly increased the odds of death caused by deterioration of respiratory capability (Pace, 1985) . He recommended that appropriate remedial actions be taken by the public health practitioners at that time.

Most of the research work carried out by Luther laid strong foundation for cancer research work. He had made sound progress in analyzing the effects of prolonged tobacco use. The findings from the work done Luther did not discourage the people of America from smoking. On the contrary, Luther focused on the role the government played on curbing the adverse effects of smoking. In so doing, he helped President Kennedy, US president at that time, to determine a number of strategic options available in reducing the adverse effects of smoking (Pace, 1985) .

Luther served as a surgeon general between 1961 and 1965. During his tenure at the helm of the public sector, Luther oversaw the streamlining of a couple of health issues in the US. Being key in the development of health policies, Luther used his position to increase awareness - 6 - [no notes on this page]LUTHER T. TERRY 6 of respiratory health. At the center of this was the effects of smoking and health complications that were caused by smoking. He led a huge anti-smoking campaign shifting focus from partially discouraging Americans from smoking preaching against use of tobacco. Coupled with his medical reports generated after years of medical research, Luther played a critical role in motivating the tobacco industry to intensify research in medical effects of prolonged tobacco use (Pace, 1985) . Even after leaving the public health industry, Luther continued to be a part of anti- smoking campaigns becoming a leading consultant in a couple of non-profit health and research organizations. - 7 - 1 2 3 4 5 6 1. Spacing issue. To achieve proper formatting, use the Page Break feature in Microsoft Word to move to the next page without using the return key. This will assure correct formatting between the Title Page and first page as well as the end of the paper and the Reference page. [Avi Stein] 2. References Should not be in bold [Avi Stein] 3. This should be italicized.

[Avi Stein] 4. Burney LE (1957).

Excessive cigarette smoking. Public Health Rep.72: 786.

Not in APA format [Avi Stein] 5. The New York Times.

non-academic source/ and not in APA format [Avi Stein] 6.

http://www.nytimes.com/19 85/03/31/us/dr- non-academic source [Avi Stein] LUTHER T. TERRY 7 References Brandt AM (2007). The Cigarette Century: The Rise, Fall, and Deadly Persistence of the Product That Defined America. New York: Basic Books; Burney LE (1957) . Excessive cigarette smoking. Public Health Rep. 72: 786.

Eileen Shanahan (1964). "U.S. To Require Health Warning For Cigarettes" . The New York Times. p. 1.

Pace, E. (1985). DR. LUTHER L. TERRY, 73, IS DEAD; WARNED PUBLIC OF CIGARETTE PERIL . Nytimes.com . Retrieved 31 July 2017, from http://www.nytimes.com/1985/03/31/us/dr- luther-l-terry-73-is-dead-warned-public-of-cigarette-peril.html