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Ch 29, 30, 32 outline 1) Pregnancy - 40 weeks long  Infant mortality rate- Deaths within the first year of birth.

 Low birth weight infants- are infant weighing less than 2,500 grams  Preterm infants - Infants born at or before 37 weeks of pregnancy  African American have the highest rate of low birth weight and preterm infants.

 Reasons for poor infant outcomes… i. Poverty ii. Poor nutrition iii. Limited health care iv. Alcohol  Fetus- A baby in the womb from the eighth week of pregnancy i. Nutrition is important for the fetus.

ii. It depends on the nutrients from the mother’s diet and nutrient stores .

iii. Calcium is the exception. Fetus has access to this from the maintenance of blood calcium levels.

 Growth- Increase in the number of cells  Development- Process involved in enhancing functional capabilities  Critical period - a time where cells of a tissue or organ are genetically programmed to multiply. Most important in the first few months.

 Roof of the mouth is formed in the 3 rd month of pregnancy . Excessive vitamin A will not combine the plates.

 Trimester - Is one-third of the normal duration of pregnancy.

i. 1 st - 0-13 weeks ii. 2 nd - 13-26 weeks 340 calories per day iii. 3 rd - 26-40 weeks 450 calories per day  Low maternal energy intake during the last few months affects cells that produce insulin . This may cause diabetes in later life.

 Factors that influence birth weight… i. Duration of pregnancy ii. Prenatal weight gain iii. Pre pregnancy weight status iv. Smoking  Pregnancy weight gain recommendations...

i. Underweight- 28-40 pounds ii. Normal- 25-35 iii. Overweight- 15-25 iv. Obese- 11-20 pounds v. Twins- 37-54 pounds  Water builds the amniotic fluid that cushions and protects the fetus.

 The placenta accommodates weight gain in pregnancy  Average weight loss after pregnancy is 15 pounds.

 Important intakes.

i. Folate - protein tissue construction. At risk nutrient and related to Neural tube defects . This is malformations on the spinal cord and the brain 30 days after conception.

ii. Vitamin B6, iii. Vitamin A- little intake = poor fetal growth. Too much intake = malformations iv. Vitamin D- Program genes and influence the development of arthritis and cancer. Low amounts affect growth and bone development.

v. Calcium - Fetus intake this the most in the 3 rd trimester.

vi. Iron - Most common deficiency in pregnant women in the US. Recommended for 2 nd and 3 rd trimester. This is the only supplement recommended for ALL WOMEN. vii. Iodine- Thyroid function. Important in protein tissue construction and maintenance.

viii. EPA and DPH- found in fish, fish oil and seafoods.

 Second half drinking during pregnancy the child is less likely to be deformed but will be small and have abnormal mental development.

2) Breast feeding- Breast milk provide protection against illness. And great source of nutrition for the first 4 to 6 months of life. It’s influenced by environmental and psychological conditions.

 Breast milk contains essential and nonessential fats. Takes 2 hours for the cells to make milk for next feeding.

 Colostrum- Is the milk produced during the first few days after delivery. It contains more nutrients than mature milk  Dietary intakes are high in breast feeding stage than pregnancy. 30% more calories are needed for breast feeding women and these come from fat stores.

 DHA is a high requirement for a breast-feeding woman . Supplements are not recommended.

 Alcohol should be avoided during the first month of breast feeding .

 Fastest rate of growth occurs during infancy. Brain growth is more important than limbs.  Malnutrition impact mental health. Infants should be fed on demand  Iron fortified rice can be given to children not receiving iron fortified formulas.

 9 th month infants can bite and chew.  Children use supplements during infancy only when… i. When infants do not receive fluoridated water. ii. When they don’t consume 400 IU of vitamin D. Ch 30 3) Growth- Children gain around 5 pounds per year between 2 to 10.

i. 2 to 3 years- sensation of hunger ii. 3 to 4 years- feed self iii. 4 to 5 years- good coordination iv. 5 to 6 years- lose baby teeth v. 6 to 9 years- communicable diseases and permanent teeth appears.

vi. 9 to 12 years- growth spurt in girls vii. 12 to 14 years- breast develop, muscle growth, social, growth spurt for boys viii. 15 to 16 years- maximum growth in girls, adults sleep pattern, boys are in growth spurt.

 Food jag is when children eat limited amounts of their favorite foods.

 BMI chart feature growth by age and sex.

i. Overweight- above 85 th percentile and below 95 th ii. Obese- above 95 th percentile  Japanese youth grown 2 inches taller each generation because the availability of nutritious foods .

 Some times children food diets are high in energy dense food.

 RDA for nutrients increase from childhood to adolescence. Fiber and vitamin D is low in US children and adolescents .  Lack of fluoride intake from water and high consumption of sugary foods cause dental problems and decay. 4) Foodborne illness is caused by bacteria, viruses, alge, fungi and toxins and chemical contaminants in foods or water i. Bacteria and viruses are the most common causes of foodborne illness.

ii. Animal feces is the main reason for contamination. Originates from the lower intestines from animals  Cross contamination - spread of a harmful substance from one surface to another. Occurs during… i. food processing ii. Cutting boards  High risk groups for severe effects are..

i. Weakened immune systems ii. Chronic illness (diabetes and cancer) iii. Pregnant women iv. Young and older people.

 Mercury - Seafoods are the primary source of this due to mercury contaminated waters.

i. Present in long lived fishes like sharks and swordfish ii. Pregnant women should limit fish consumption because it interferes with brain development  Ciguatera - is a poisoning by neurotoxins inside fish that eat dinoflagellates microorganisms in reefs.

i. From herbivorous fish, to carnivorous fish and to humans that consume carnivorous fish .

 Red Tide - Occurs during June and October in the pacific and Atlantic oceans. Mostly in mussels, clams, oysters, scallops i. Resistant to cooking. Toxins causing burning and pricking in the mouth ii. Symptoms are nausea, vomiting, muscle weakness and loss of feelings in hands and feet.

 Botulism —The deadliest toxin that causes nerve damage and respiratory failure.

i. Results from underheated and contaminated foods stored in airtight containers.

ii. Mostly found in Alaska due to native practice of placing seafood in plastic bags to ferment.

 Parasites - enter food through fecal and soil. Can be killed by freezing and high temperature.

i. Roundworms are attached to the intestine’s lining. Leads to anemia  Bisphenol A - is released from plastic bottles when exposed to high temperatures.

 Mad cow - This is found in cattle and originated from England.

i. Cows consume sheep intestines and spinal cord.

ii. Prion is a protein found in sheep causes MC when consumed by cows.

iii. Kuru- is transmitted by cannibalism.

 Antibiotics used on animals are the same for humans. Many of today’s illness are new bacteria  Preventing foodborne illness… i. Safety regulations that oversees food processing and handling practices. Pesticides not included ii. Consumer behaviors  Prions, toxins, pesticides and mercury are resistant to radiation (irradiation)  Bacteria grows between 40 -135 degreesGround meats Internal temperatures Beef, veal, lamb, pork 160 F Chicken, turkey 165 F Roast, steaks, chops Beef, veal, lamb 145 F Chicken, turkey, duck 165 F Stuffing 165 F Pork, Ham, fresh 145 F Ham, cooked , re- heated 140 F Eggs and other foods Fried poached Yolk and white are firm Casseroles, leftovers 165F Sauces, custards 160 F Food Fridge Freezer Eggs in shell 3-5 weeks Don’t freeze Raw yolks, whites 2-4 days 1 year Hardcooked 1 week Don’t freeze Liquid eggs 3 days Don’t freeze Unopened eggs 10 days 1year Mayo 2 months Don’t freeze TV dinners Keep frozen til ready to eat 3-4 months Egg, chicke, tuna, ham, mac salads 3-5 days Won’t freeze well Prestuffed pork lamb chops 1 day Won’t freeze well Store cooked convenience meats 1-2 days Won’t freeze well USDA Commercial vac sealed meals 2 weeks Won’t freeze well Soups w/ vegetable and meat 3-4 days 2-3 months Hamburger and stew 1-2 days 3-4 months Ground meats 1-2 days 3-4 months Hot dogs opened 1 week 1-2 months Hot dogs unopened 2 weeks 1-2 months Lunch meats unopened 2 weeks 1-2 months Bacon 7 days 1 month Sausage, raw pork beef, turkey 2 days 1-2 months Smoaked links and patties 7 days 1-2 months Hard sausage- pepperoni 2-3 weeks 1-2 months Corned beef in pouch 5-7days Drains, wrapped Corned with juices 5-7 days 1 month Ham canned 6-9 months Don’t freeze Ham open can 3-5days 1-2 months Ham fully cooked whole 7 days 1-2 months Ham fully cooked half 3-5 days 1-2 months Ham fully cooked slices 3-4 days 1-2 months Steaks, beef 3-5 days 6-12 months Chops pork 3-5 days 4-6 months Chops lamb 3-5 days 6-9 months Roasts 3-5 days 4-12 months Variety meats 2 days 1-2 months Cooked meat leftovers 3-4 days 2-3 months Gravy and meat broth 1-2 days 2-3 months Fresh Chicken and turkey whole 1-2 days 1 year Fresh Chicken and turkey pieces 1-2 days 9 months Gibets 1-2 days 3-4 months Fried chicken leftover 3-4 days 4 months Bacteria Onset Duration Symptoms Food Source Salmonella 1-3 days 4-7 days Diarrhea, ab pain, chills, fever, vomiting, dehydrations Uncooked or undercooked eggs, pasteurized milk, raw meat/chicken veggies and fruits Infected animals, human feces on food contaminated water Campylobacter 2-5 days 2-5 days Diarrhea w/blood, ab cramps, fever vomiting Undercooked chicken, pasteurized milk Infected chicken and other animals E. coli 1-8 days 5-10 days Watery, bloody diarrhea, ab cramps, little to no fever Raw or undercooked beef, unpasteurized milk, raw vegetables and fruits, contaminated water Infected cattle Noroviruses 1-2 days 1-3 days Nauseas, vomiting, diarrhea Undercooked seafood Human feces, contamination of oysters and shellfish beds