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CRJ3990--- Four discussion response- Due Saturday 8/24/17 @ 9am. Please look back at the orignal homework post for links and textbook. Thanks

TOPIC: After listening to the interviews with Bill Bratton and reading Chapter 1, please identify three major issues with public sector management especially concerning police and corrections.  Explain why properly handling these issues are critical to public sector administrators and the role of the community stakeholders.  Prior to completing the assignment, please review the discussion forum grading rubric. 

1. Dusty:  

  In today’s world, our criminal justice system is under strict scrutiny and constantly changing. These changes are driven by different influences among our society. Often these influences are political, social, and criminal. Each of these influences lead to three major concerns in the criminal justice system which are structure, purpose, and activities.

     According to Stojkovic, Kalinich, and Klofas (2015), an organization is, “An entity defined by structure, purpose, and activity objectives” (p. 6). This is very important when analyzing our criminal justice system today. For example, police departments, court system and correctional organization must maintain a balance between political needs, society desires, and the criminal element. This balance often creates and reforms each of these organizations structure, purpose, and activities.

     It’s the responsibility of administrators, also known as “public sector”, in these organizations to address these issues and maintain a productive balance. According to Stojkovic, Kalinicj, and Klofas (2015), “criminal justice administrators must deal with civil service protections and obligations as well as expectations due to their public status designation” (p. 11). This is a major responsibility and often calls for the administrators to flexible in their duty because the demand for their organization can rapidly change.

     Successfully maintaining the responsibilities of administrators is crucial to each department. Meeting these standards help to build public trust, hold criminals accountable/ gain compliance, and complying with political influence for budgeting. Failure to meet these standards can be devastating to the public, department, and criminal element. For example, administrators could fail to translate officer issues with political influence cause low morale among the department. Another example, would be the failure of an administrator to properly investigate complaints. This could cause an up rise within the community that has potential to turn violent. At this point, it’s difficult to maintain order as we have since in some cities around America.

     While maintaining the order desired by the public, political influence, and criminal element we are still called to enforce new change deemed be the state or federal government. According to Stojkovic, Kalinich, and Klofas (2015), “Nobody said that criminal justice administration would be easy. As administrators, we have to respond to changes mandated through the legislatures and the courts” (p 11). These changes can also pose issues and dislike amongst the communities you serve which leaves yet another task to overcome. The important thing here is to build up as a team within your department and community so that together you remain strong for a brighter future.  


Stojkovic, S., Kalinich, D., Klofas, J. (2015). Criminal Justice Organizations: administration

     and management. Stamford, CT. Cengage Learning. Sixth Edition.    

2. Jason:

 Management is defined "A process where elements of a group are coordinated, integrated and utilized to effectively and effectively achieve organizational objectives."(Stojkovic, S. et al. 2015). Management at the criminal justice level involves many moving parts and is likely not the sole responsibility of one office. For example, the Chief of an agency may have a vision for his or her police force, but the mayor of that city may also have some influence or desires for the department. These may even conflict with each other. One of the first steps to managing an agency is determining the agency goals or objectives, this can be sued to guide what steps are taken to get an agency to those goals. Another issue of management with regards to criminal justice is the "top down" approach the hierarchy must be adopt, in other words, a chief or mayor may want officers to perform certain tasks, that are inline with the over all goals of the agency, but if the street level employee refuses to comply then the goal wont be reached. as an example, an agency may wish to reduce traffic accidents in an area, and to perform this they order the street officers to write more tickets. If the officers, decide they are not going to comply, their is not change or forward movement towards the goal. Management can also be made difficult by police corruption. In order for police agencies to maintain legitimacy the citizens must trust the police. Corruption can occur in any agency, and many agencies have approximately 1% of their police force involved in some form of corruption, racism, or abuse (Simon, S. (2003).  

 The loss of legitimacy can lead to increased issues of violence when police clash with those who not longer believe in the police's ability to be fair or impartial. Missed opportunities  in management can also stall the growth of an agency. In other words, if the operational goals are not met, there may be detrimental effects. Agencies aren't able to reduce crime, more respect is lost, officers then may not wish to be associated with job. This may again lead to the stalling of the agencies growth or improvement. 

Stojkovic, S.,  Kalinich, D., and  Klofas, J., ( 2015). Criminal Justice Organizations: Administration and Management Sixth Edition. . Wadsworth Publishing. Cengage Learning.  

Simon. S. (2003). Bratton finds new challenges as LAPD Chief. NPR weekend edition. Retrived from http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=1437371

3. Kenneth:

 The first major issue that administrators in the public sector, especially Law Enforcement and Corrections, is the "civil service protections and obligations as well as expectations due to their public status designation." (Stojkovic, Kalinich, & Klofas,  pg. 12 2015) Imposed by several different legislative actions and laws, bureaucracies, such as criminal justice agencies, must adhere to principals such as accountability, efficiency, fiscal integrity and equity. Unlike the private sector; firing an employee for not fulfilling his/her responsibility, is easily accomplished. As Trump would say, "you are fired". With disciplinary boards  "the protections afforded public employees make it overly burdensome and time consuming to effectively manage and lead". (Stojkovic, Kalinich, & Klofas, pg. 12, 2015). 

Public employee's Union's also are a problem for criminal justice administrators. Although unions have helped with better pay and benefits, they have hurt the organizations by insisting that management can not fire an employee without just cause. Also, the cost of union sponsored benefits along with pay scales that they desire for their constituents, could directly effect how management does their job. (Stojkovic, Kalinich, & Klofas, pg. 12, 2015)

These points are important in the Criminal Justice arena because people will always judge them. "The police, too, will always be subject to criticism as they pursue both crime and control and due process because the public cannot agree on what goal or what balance of goals is appropriate." (Stojokovic, Kalinich, & Klofas, pg. 15, 2015) What this means is, that people will expect that the criminal justice field to be operated in such a way that reflects their ideology of "what is is" compared to what it "actually does".

As per Chief Bratton explained, the public interpretations of what his department should be doing in contrast with what they were actually doing was different. A small police force was used in Los Angeles because the area thought that the amount of officers was sufficient when in actuality, Bratton proved to them that it wasn't. Bratton realized that when officer's are overworked with higher case loads and areas to cover, it affects the way those officers police; and how they are perceived by the community and how well they (community) conforms to not only laws, but how well they treat and respect the officers. (Chideya, 2006)


Chideya, F., (14 July, 2006) LAPD Chief on making the city safer. NPR. Retrieved 23 August 2017 from: http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=5557539

Stojkovic, S., Kalinich, D., & Klofas, J. (2015) Criminal justice organizations: administration and management (6th Edition) Cengage

4. David:

After reading through the required text and listing to the audio bites I have identified three major problems facing the public-sector management especially concerning police and corrections: management, complex and competing goals, and leadership.  Management is becoming a problematic sector. The problem is that there is no black and white way of managing. Managing requires one to be flexible and adaptable. Managing in the public sector often means covering a group of departments rather than just one. Not all the departments are going to receive the same treatment and attention as others. However, all of these departments need to make attempts to get results from management. We get a good example of this when listing to chief Bratton talk about taking over in Los Angeles police department. I'm running a very good police department. But it also indicates that there is still more to be done. And one of the things that's essential is the comment you made earlier about the thousand additional officers that to finally and permanently correct some of the issues that have caused so many problems in the city, we're going to need a larger police department (Chideys, 2006). The next issue that we see is a conflict of complex and competing goals. This becomes a problem because when you receive funds for a department or certain area, where did the funds come from, is a different department losing their funding, ect. This can cause tremendous problems for other people and or departments. This then fall back to management and wither or not they are making the right decisions. The competing aspect is one of if multiple departments have a need for a specific item to complete their jobs which department gets the attention.  One must exercise extreme caution when making this decision. Although complex and conflicting goals may thus serve as constraints, they need not be viewed in negative terms (Stojkovic, Kalinich, & Klofas, 2015). The next sector to address is that of leadership. Many people believe that leadership and management go hand in hand. One can be a manager without being a leader, however, being a leader will make you a manager. This misunderstanding often leads to people getting put into positions that they may not necessary be best fit to serve.  Chief Bratton at one point in his interview states that he only wants to stay long enough to get through the changes needed to be implemented. He says that he doesn’t like to stay longer than needed because then he is in a maintenance capacity. A good leader knows when they need to move on and afford others the opportunity to succeed. Managers are more likely to hold the position until it benefits them to move.


 Chideys, F. (2006). NPR LAPD Chief on making the city safer. Retrieved on August 24, 2017 from http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=5557539. 

 Stojkovic, S., Kalinich, D., and Klofas, J. (2015). Criminal Justice Organizations: Administration and Management, [6th ED]. Cengage Publishing.


HIS2050--- One discussion response- Due Saturday 8/24/17 @ 9am. Please look back at the orignal homework post for links and textbook. Thanks

Topic:  Read Ch. 2 ("Colonial Beginnings") in your textbook, The Way We Lived.  What did John Winthrop mean by his declaration that "we shall be as a City upon a Hill?"  Do you agree with this early statement of what has become known as American Exceptionalism?

1. Crystal:

I feel that John Winthrop was saying that Christians should represent themselves like a city on the hill because that is how Christians are perceived by being put out in the front for all to see. The only way for others to see and to get to know Christ is to see him through his believers. Furthermore, I feel that John Winthrop was also saying that Christians need to be on guard because people are watching them everywhere they go and in everything they do.  John Winthrop I believe was telling people to show their light so others could see the will of God in them.  People that portray to be Christians need to be Christ-like and show what Christ-like is by the way they live. By being Christ-like you should show God's love by charity, sharing, and giving. God is love. On the other hand, it has always surprised me how others are so concerned with the way Christians live and more concerned with what Christians do in their lives. I have heard individuals talking of hopes to see Christians make a spectacle of themselves. I feel like others don’t see that we are all human, we all make mistakes as long as we don’t continue making the same mistakes over and over again.  There is always forgiveness.   

Also, he gives warnings of what would happen if you make a commitment with God and then break your commitment.  He talks about the ways to avoid the wrath that God would bestow on the individuals that break their commitment.

I agree and disagree.  I agree that Christians should be a light and show others God’s will and who he is.  I took for the declaration that if you fail God then his wrath would be on you.  I believe we fail daily and if we make a mistake God wouldn’t forgive us.  If that was the case we all would be in trouble and hell would be where our eternal souls would be for eternity.


Binder, F. M., & Reimers, D. M. (2013). The Way we lived essays and documents in american social history. Boston: Wadsworth.

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