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1.Which of the following describe(s) a mineral?

1.Which of the following describe(s) a mineral? (2 points)

I. A kind of rock formed as lava cools on Earth's surface

II. A composite solid formed as grains of sand undergo lithification

III. A crystal formed as water evaporates from a supersaturated solution

A. I only

B. II only

C. III only

D. I and II only

E. II and III only

2. An open-pit iron mine has been abandoned for several years. Before they left, the miners filled in the pits with soil that included tailings and other waste products from the mine's productive years. Which of the following hazards do the pits most likely pose to the surrounding environment?

I. Acid mine drainage

II. Cyanide leaching

III. Increased carbon emissions

A. I only

B. II only

C. III only

D. I and II only

E. II and III only

3.Which mineral mining practice is most likely to emit heavy metals such as lead, chromium, and zinc into the atmosphere?

A. Dredging

B. Hydraulic mining

C. Open-pit mining

D. Smelting

E. Strip mining

4. Which mineral mining practice is most likely to degrade the floor of oceans, lakes, and other water bodies?

A. Dredging

B. Heap leaching

C. Hydraulic mining

D. Open-pit mining

E. Smelting

5. A gold mine is located beside a river that is a source of food for a nearby village. Miners extract gold from the ore through the process of mercury amalgamation, in which crushed ore is mixed with mercury. The mercury bonds with the gold and draws it out of the surrounding waste, which is then disposed of in tailings ponds located between the mine and the river. Which of the following health risks does the mine most likely pose to the nearby villagers who eat fish from the river?

I.Stomach tumors resulting from acid mine drainage

II. Brain damage resulting from the bioaccumulation of heavy metals

III. Kidney and liver diseases resulting from groundwater contamination

A. I only

B. II only

C. III only

D. I and II only

E. II and III only

6.Which of the following is not an ecosystem service provided by forests?

A. Creating windbreaks

B. Increasing surface water runoff

C. Producing oxygen

D. Recharging aquifers

E. Sequestering carbon

7. Which of the following is most likely to be part of a country's sustainable forest management policy?

A. Convert cropland back into forestland.

B. Use chemical pesticides to rid forests of tree-damaging pests.

C. Encourage the reseeding of old-growth forests that have been logged.

D. Give tax breaks to companies that purchase wood from tree plantations.

E. Mandate that all forests and forest managers be certified through the Forest Stewardship Council.

8. In which of the following scenarios would environmental restoration not be a viable option?

A. A forest is clear-cut to make room for a shopping center.

B. Trees are harvested by a lumber company using strip cutting techniques.

C. A pharmaceutical company removes medicinal plants from the forest floor.

D. An endangered species of bird is discovered in a heavily logged section of forest.

E. An indigenous tribe living in a rainforest overhunts a species of monkey one year.

9. Which of the following incorrectly describes a difference between the Sustainable Forestry Initiative (SFI) and the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC)?

A. The FSC requires an annual audit, whereas the SFI does not.

B. The FSC is initiated by environmental groups, whereas the SFI is initiated by the forestry industry.

C. The FSC evaluation includes criteria that focus on people indigenous to a forest, whereas the SFI does not.

D. The FSC uses specific ecological indicators to assess a forest's health, whereas the SFI uses general ecological indicators.

E. The FSC is a voluntary process of forest certification, whereas the SFI is a piece of legislation that makes certification mandatory.

10. Which of the following forest management strategies would be most effective at preventing biodiversity loss caused by the activities of loggers in a forest?

A. Prohibiting the clear-cutting of trees

B. Prohibiting the selection cutting of trees

C. Prohibiting the selective cutting of trees

D. Prohibiting the shelter wood cutting of trees

E. Prohibiting the strip cutting of trees

Which of the following forests would the "Roadless Rule" established by the Clinton administration most effectively protect from harmful logging? 

I. A forest designated by the U.S. Forest Service as a national forest

II. A forest designated by the Bureau of Land Management as a resource land

III. A forest designated by the Bureau of Land Management as a wilderness area

A. I only

B. II only

C. III only

D. I and II only

E. I and III only

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