Which of the following is a factor present in a situation which may affect a person's perception?
Which of the following types of biases is most likely to play a significant role during a negotiation?
A. anchoring bias
B. distinction bias
C. normalcy bias
D. status quo bias
E. impact bias
Phyllis Stintson needs to decide whether to start a campaign against deforestation in Indonesia. Though her research team has provided substantial information on the high feasibility of the project, Stintson does not go ahead with the project. Stintson's decision is most likely influenced by which of the following if she made the decision by drawing unconscious references from several different experiences in the past?
B. fundamental attribution error
D. anchoring bias
E. framing effect
________ bias refers to the tendency for people to base their judgments on information that is easily accessible.
The tendency to believe falsely, after an outcome of an event is actually known, that one would have accurately predicted that outcome is known as a(n) ________ bias.
Jeanne Edwards works as a campaign manager at Rainforest Alliance Trust, a forest protection organization in Indonesia. She is currently working on the Palm Oil Campaign which aims at establishing stringent laws against companies which aggravate deforestation to extract palm oil for commercial use. Her role is to establish allies with other forest protection organizations and companies which use eco-friendly products that set good examples for other companies to follow. Jeanne allied with Griffin and Powell, a large multinational company, which, unknown to Jeanne, also has strong ties with local logging groups in Jakarta. Which of the following, if true, would strengthen the argument that Jeanne had an availability bias while establishing an ally with the company?
A. Griffin and Powell ensures that all their CSR initiatives on forests are regularly and substantially publicized.
B. Rainforest Alliance Trust has strong networks with local environmental research organizations.
C. Jeanne has access to environmental records maintained by the Information Ministry.
D. Jeanne is well acquainted with various research techniques.
E. Jeanne has adequate experience in leading such campaigns.
Naomi Fisher, a sales manager at Pure, a water purifier company, had a new member, Leah Marshall join her team. Though during Leah's interview, Naomi felt she would be a productive sales executive, her performance has often been below the mark. Consistently in the past three months, Leah has been unable to reach her targets and is falling substantially behind on her annual targets. Naomi assumes that Leah is not determined and motivated enough to do what it takes. Which of the following, if true, weakens Naomi's assumption?
A. Research showed that the company's largest competitor had a lower turnover than they did.
B. Leah has been assigned a sales territory where consumers are from low income groups.
C. Leah has often arrived late for team meetings conducted in the morning.
D. Leah has good interpersonal skills and gets along well with her customers.
E. Naomi recently received feedback from other team members that Leah is often uncooperative.
Sarah Covington, a sales manager at Synergy Corporation Bank, often keeps low expectations of her team. She feels that they are under qualified for their job and do not have substantial experience to sell a large number of accounts. Covington's team does not feel motivated enough and invariably underperforms and misses targets on a regular basis. Which of the following concepts best explains Covington's team's poor performance?
A. hindsight bias
B. self-fulfilling prophecy
C. confirmation bias
D. bandwagon effect
E. contrast effect
According to the attribution theory, if everyone who faces a similar situation responds in the same way, we can say the behavior shows ________.
Rose Buffay needs to give a presentation to the board of directors of her organization next week. She knows that her presentation will play an important role in her performance appraisal in the next quarter. However, she knows that two of her colleagues, John Roy and Keith Mathews, will also be giving a presentation on the same issue. She is nervous because she believes that men have a better flair for giving presentations. Buffay's perception of John and Keith is most likely characterized by ________.
B. a halo effect
C. a contrast effect
D. a confirmation bias
E. a hindsight bias
Monica Walden feels that people who use plastic bags are insensitive toward the environment. She believes that people have a certain obligation toward their environment and should take it upon themselves to protect and preserve it. Which of the following factors has most likely influenced Walden's perception of people?
C. characteristic of the target
Which of the following is an example of internally caused behavior?
A. An employee was fired from work because he violated a company policy.
B. An employee could not attend an interview because of a delayed flight.
C. An employee was late for a team meeting because of a heavy downpour.
D. An employee was laid off because the company was attempting to cut costs by laying off employees.
E. An employee could not come to work because he met with an accident.
Johanna Murray, a climate campaigner at The National Footprint Foundation, is known in her organization to be a campaigner of caliber and high performance. She recently worked on a campaign against global warming during which she worked extremely hard to achieve project milestones. However, the campaign failed as it could not achieve the desired objective. Due to this, her manager, Brenda Owens gave her a poor performance appraisal. In the appraisal, Brenda said that Johanna was not motivated and failed to reach out to 25,000 people through Internet media to spread awareness about climate change. Which of the following, if true, weakens Brenda's statement?
A. Johanna recently moved from the agriculture campaign to the climate campaign.
B. Brenda is known in the organization to be a fair and unbiased manager.
C. Brenda was unable to make time for Johanna to brief her on the tasks involved in carrying out the campaign's media strategy.
D. Johanna's previous job involved an extensive amount of researching on environmental issues.
E. Johanna lacks experience in publicizing campaigns using Internet media.
Janice Yoder works in an environmental campaigning organization and often needs to interact with a large team for project implementation activities. However, she always finds it difficult to work as a part of a team. She always seems to have major disagreements with team members which lead to antagonistic relations between them. Though she has moved from one team to another, her relations with colleagues always seem to be hostile and cold. How would the attribution theory describe this behavior?
A. low on distinctiveness
B. high on adaptability
C. high on reliability
D. low on consensus
E. high on consistency
A manager doing performance appraisals gives more weight to recent employee behaviors than to behaviors of 6 or 9 months earlier. This shows that the manager's perception is affected by a(n) ________ bias.
A. self-serving bias
You are more likely to notice a car like your own due to ________.
A. halo effect
C. selective perception
D. contrast effect
E. self-serving bias
According to the attribution theory, if a behavior scores ________, we tend to attribute it to internal causes.
A. low on conformity
B. low on distinctiveness
C. low on consistency
D. high on consensus
E. high on rigidity
Samantha is never late for work. But last Monday she arrived an hour late because of heavy traffic. According to the attribution theory, Samantha's behavior on that day scores ________.
A. high on reliability
B. low on distinctiveness
C. high on stability
D. high on traceability
E. low on consistency
Which of the following is a component of the three-component model of creativity?
A. logical thinking skills
C. analytical skills
E. extrinsic task motivation
The ________ bias is a tendency to fixate on initial information and fail to adequately adjust for subsequent information.
Emily Boyce, a project manager at an insurance firm, regularly satisfices while making decisions. She often comes across complicated problems which would take a long time to resolve. Due to the pressing deadlines, she often meets project goals by satisficing a large number of her decisions. Which of the following is Boyce most likely to do?
A. seek complete information while making decisions
B. analyze each alternative in an unbiased manner
C. identify all possible options to solutions
D. choose the optimal solution to each problem
E. search for solutions that are reasonable
Which of the following is a decision-making model that describes how individuals should behave in order to maximize some outcome?
A. associative decision-making model
B. distributive decision-making model
C. flexible decision-making model
D. rational decision-making model
E. integrative decision-making model
________ refers to the tendency of people to draw a general impression about an individual on the basis of a single characteristic.
A. Self-serving bias
B. Confirmation bias
C. Halo effect
D. Randomness error
E. Hindsight bias
________ explains the ways in which we judge people differently, depending on the meaning we assign to a given behavior.
A. Attribution theory
B. Object relations theory
C. Equity theory
D. Cultural schema theory
E. Attachment theory
According to the attribution theory, which of the following behaviors is most likely to be attributed to an external cause?
A. a behavior that scores low on traceability
B. a behavior that scores high on consistency
C. a behavior that scores high on consensus
D. a behavior that scores high on rigidity
E. a behavior that scores low on distinctiveness
A manager believes that he should not hire older workers because they can't learn new skills. This belief is an example of ________.
B. a fundamental attribution error
C. a confirmation bias
D. a self-serving bias
E. an anchoring bias
According to the attribution theory, ________ is one the three main factors which attempts to determine an individual's behavior.
The three-component model of creativity proposes that individual creativity essentially requires expertise, creative thinking skills, and ________.
A. positivity offset
B. intrinsic task motivation
C. emotional intelligence
D. external locus of control
E. selective perception
Which of the following terms refers to choices made from among two or more alternatives?
Which of the following is an example of externally caused behavior?
A. An employee is late to work because of a punctured tire.
B. An employee closed a sale with an important corporate client because of his excellent negotiation skills.
C. An employee was promoted when he achieved more than the assigned objectives.
D. An employee postpones a meeting because he overslept.
E. An employee was fired because he violated a company policy.
William Davies, a guest relations executive at a five star deluxe hotel, regularly interacts with bureaucrats, politicians, celebrities, and other prosperous individuals. He feels that all rich people are kind, hardworking, and friendly. Which of the following is Davies most likely to be characterized by?
A. hindsight bias
B. halo effect
C. self-serving bias
D. confirmation bias
E. randomness error
________ is the process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment.
Laura Simpson, a campaign manager at a child rights organization in Jakarta, planned a marathon for celebrities to raise money for underprivileged children. Though all arrangements for the event had been made, a few days before the event she realized that on the same day there was a political rally happening in the city which will block access to the route on which the marathon was supposed to be undertaken. In such a situation, what is Simpson, who suffers from a self-serving bias, most likely to say?
A. I did not do sufficient research on public events in the city.
B. I should have weighed feasibility options for the event.
C. The director had warned me of this. I should have known better.
D. My colleagues did not inform me about the rally.
E. I should have established better contacts to know about this update.
Alicia Akers works as a marketing executive. She always talks in a high pitch and often draws a lot of attention wherever she is. Which of the following statements best explains the reason behind people noticing Akers?
A. Perception of reality depends on the perceiver's past experiences.
B. Perception of reality depends on the perceiver's personality.
C. The time at which we observe behavior affects perception.
D. Motives and interests of the perceiver affects perception of behavior.
E. Characteristics of the target affect people's perception.
Jessica recently joined a new company and was first introduced to Michelle, her cubicle neighbor. Michelle came across as amiable and cheerful. During lunch she met another colleague, Carrie, who did not come across as friendly as Michelle. In this situation, Jessica's interpretation of Carrie's personality is most likely to be affected by a ________.
A. self-serving bias
B. contrast effect
C. bandwagon effect
D. fundamental attribution error
E. confirmation bias
Which of the following statements is true regarding the rational decision-making model?
A. It takes into consideration the limited information-processing capability of individuals.
B. It involves constructing simplified models without capturing all their complexity.
C. It assumes that an individual is able to identify all relevant options in an unbiased manner.
D. It deals with satisficing decisions by seeking solutions that are satisfactory and sufficient.
E. It is an unconscious decision-making process created from distilled experience.
Which of the following is a shortcut used in judging others by making generalizations?
B. illusory superiority
C. hindsight bias
D. telescoping effect
E. randomness error
According to the concept of ________, decisions are made solely on the basis of their outcomes, ideally to provide the greatest good for the greatest number.
A. contrast effect
B. selective perception
C. halo effect
D. self-fulfilling prophecy
________ refers to staying with a decision even when there is clear evidence it's wrong.
A. Escalation of commitment
B. Risk aversion
C. Fundamental attribution error
D. Randomness error
E. Availability bias
When individuals observe another person's behavior, they attempt to determine whether it is internally or externally caused. Which of the following attempts to explain this phenomenon?
A. pygmalion effect
B. emotional dissonance
C. attribution theory
D. framing effect
E. two-factor theory