Biol-113 Midterm-1 (2015 Fall)1

Question Biol 113 Fall 2015

Assignment: 

Midterm-1-2015F

1. The three major domains of life are

archaea, bacteria, and eukaryotes.

plants, animals, and protists.

eukaryotes, prokaryotes, and animals.

eukaryotes, prokaryotes, and fungi.

bacteria, fungi, and eukaryotes.

2. Organic molecules

always contain hydrogen.

are always food molecules.

are found only in organisms, hence their name.

always contain carbon.

always contain carbon and hydrogen.

3. Which of the following structures are NOT found in the cytoplasm?

lysosome

chromosomes

nucleus

mitochondria

chloroplast

4. The nucleolus

contains DNA and is found in the cytoplasm.

contains RNA and is found in the nucleus.

contains DNA and is found in the nucleus.

contains ribosome subunits and is found in the cytoplasm.

contains RNA and is found in the cytoplasm.

5. Some students consume large amounts of coffee and so-called energy drinks to help them stay alert when studying. You notice that many who engage in this practice seem to do poorly on exams. Suppose you want to investigate the relationship between caffeine consumption and exam performance. Which of the following statements would be an appropriate hypothesis?

Students who consume large amounts of caffeine while studying will have lower exam scores than those who consume less caffeine.

Many students consume large amounts of caffeine while studying.

Caffeine increases alertness but also increases anxiety.

One should avoid consuming too much caffeine while studying.

Too much caffeine is harmful to your health.

6. When a substance moves from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration while using energy, the process is termed

pinocytosis.

facilitated diffusion.

active transport.

osmosis.

diffusion.

7. Which of the following is a prokaryotic cell?

plant cell

bacterium

liver cell

muscle cell

paramecium

8. Both plant and animal cells have mitochondria because they both

have a large central vacuole.

need ATP for energy.

have lysosomal hydrolytic enzymes.

carry on photosynthesis.

have endoplasmic reticulum.

9. Two molecules of glucose combine to form a disaccharide molecule during a(n) ________ reaction.

hydrolysis

ionic bond

hydrogen bond

inert

dehydration

10. Which of the following types of lipid is the most abundant constituent of cell membranes?

phospholipid

fat

neutral fat

triglyceride

cholesterol

phospholipid

11. Compared with a eukaryotic cell, a prokaryotic cell

has no method of movement.

lacks organelles beyond ribosomes.

is larger.

does not require energy.

is not living.

12. The backbone of a nucleic acid strand is composed of

glycerol.

alternating pentose sugars and phosphate groups.

"R" groups.

nitrogenous bases.

alternating adenines and thymines.

13. Which nutrient source is the easiest one for humans to breakdown and form ATP?

glucose

chitin

cellulose

protein

phospholipids

14. Ribosomes are composed of

only protein.

RNA and protein.

DNA and protein.

DNA and RNA.

only DNA.

15. DNA codes for the sequence of amino acids in the primary structure of a protein, but not for sugars or lipids. This is because

sugars and lipids are ever present in the living environment and are not used in living structures.

sugars and lipids code for their own replication.

other hereditary molecules code for sugars and lipids.

only proteins are involved in living metabolic reactions.

proteins are the main structural and functional components of cells.

16. The final shape of a protein is very important to its function. When proteins undergo an irreversible change in shape called ________________ they ________________ perform their usual functions.

dehydration reaction/cannot

naturation/can

naturation/cannot

denaturation/can

denaturation/cannot

17. Which answer choice lists the steps of the scientific method in the correct order?

observation, experiment, hypothesis, conclusion, scientific theory

conclusion, hypothesis, observation, experiment, scientific theory

scientific theory, conclusion, hypothesis, experiment, observation

hypothesis, observation, experiment, conclusion, scientific theory

observation, hypothesis, experiment, conclusion, scientific theory

18. Which of these is present in plant, but not animal, cells?

cell membrane

centrioles

Golgi apparatus

nucleus

chloroplasts

19. Hemoglobin is a protein composed of two pairs of polypeptide chains. What is the highest level of protein structure represented in hemoglobin?

molecular

tertiary

quaternary

secondary

primary

20. Mitochondria are bounded by a double membrane. The inner filled space is called the matrix which contains ______________ that break down carbohydrate products, releasing _______________ to be used for ATP production.

enzymes/energy

DNA/energy

RNA/energy

ribosomes/carbon dioxide

21. Macrophages, a type of white blood cells, are able to remove bacteria from our bloodstream and tissues by

osmosis.

passive transport.

phagocytosis.

facilitated diffusion.

pinocytosis.

22. The ____ will store pigments and toxins in plant cells.

mitochondria

chloroplast

lysosomes

vacuole

peroxisomes

23. All carbohydrate molecules

are organic acids.

are composed of atoms of C, H, and the functional group -OH.

contain nitrogen and phosphate.

contain amino acids.

are composed of atoms of C, H, O, and N.

24. When a lysosome fuses with a vacuole,

protein synthesis begins.

they both return to the Golgi apparatus.

they both disappear.

its contents are digested.

division begins.

25. If a new anti-cancer drug is found effective in initial tests with mice, what do researchers conclude?

The drug is effective in the mouse model; it must still be tested in humans.

The effect of the drug on mice has no bearing on the effect of the drug on humans.

The mice have provided a positive control in this experiment that proves the drug is effective in humans.

If the drug was effective in a small proportion of mice, it will be effective in a small proportion of humans.

If the drug was effective in a large number of mice, it will therefore be effective in humans.

26. Certain individuals with a Y chromosome develop into females because testosterone is not able to induce the formation of male sexual characteristics. This is most likely due to a defect in

the receptor

the Y chromosome

the transduction pathway

the signaling molecule

the target protein

27. Which statement concerning reproduction is false?

The offspring of asexual organisms have the same genes as the single parent.

Hereditary information is passed on to the next generation.

The offspring of sexual organisms have roughly one half of the genes from each parent.

Hereditary information is in the form of genes.

The offspring of multicellular organisms tend to be identical to the parent.

28. Carrier molecules are required for

facilitated diffusion.

osmosis.

both facilitated diffusion AND active transport.

active transport.

both osmosis AND diffusion.

29. If a cell lacked ribosomes, it would NOT be able to

form a spindle apparatus.

synthesize proteins.

form a Golgi vesicle.

hydrolyze fat.

respire.

30. Which of these combinations would be found in a nucleotide?

DNA-RNA-nucleus

sugar-protein-fat

base-sugar-phosphate

adenine-thymine-uracil

base-acid-salt

31. Which function does the lipid bilayer component of the plasma membrane NOT provide for the cell?

provides a fluid and flexible boundary that insulates the interior from the variations in humidity, food, and other external conditions

provides a matrix for the placement of proteins that regulate the exchange of molecules between the inside and outside of the cell

controls the exchange of molecules between one cell and adjacent cells or the environment

defines a permeable boundary between the organized interior and the chaotic external environment

provides an impermeable, self-sealing membrane that keeps all internal living processes sealed inside

32. You are conducting an experiment to determine what concentration of disinfectant is most effective in killing bacteria. In this example, the concentration of disinfectant would represent the

response variable.

hypothesis.

control.

data.

experimental variable.

33. Enzymes are organic compounds classified as

carbohydrates.

proteins.

nucleic acids.

lipids.

steroids.

34. According to cell theory

new cells arise only from preexisting cells.

a multicellular organism is composed of many cells.

the smallest unit of life is a nucleus.

all organisms are composed of tissues.

animals but not plants are composed of cells.

35. A researcher samples the waters of the boiling hot springs in Yellowstone National Park. Under the microscope, she observes what appear to be living cells in the water. If these indeed are living cells, what type of cell would they most likely be?

eukaryotic, animal

eukaryotic, fungi

eukaryotic, plant

prokaryotic, bacteria

prokaryotic, archaea

36. Which statement is false regarding science?

Correct scientific conclusions are permanent and never subject to change or refinement.

Science helps us to understand the natural world.

Information is gained by observing and testing.

Information is gathered by scientific methods.

Science strives to be objective rather than subjective.

37. Which of the following factors could cause the cell membrane to become less permeable?

If the channel proteins were to denature and become inactive. 

If the size of the protein channel was to increase.

If the molecules trying to enter the cell were decreased in size.

If the hydrophilic head of the phospholipids were to become hydrophobic while the hydrophobic tails become hydrophilic.

All of these choices would cause the cell membrane to become less permeable.

38. What type of bond will connect the amino acids in a protein?

triple covalent

polar covalent

ionic

double covalent

peptide

39. Which sequence correctly lists the different levels of biological organization, from the smallest and simplest to the largest and most complex?

cells-tissues-organs-organ systems-organisms

tissues-cells-organs-organ systems-organism

cells-organs-tissues-organ systems-organism

tissues-organs-organ systems-organisms-cells

cells-tissues-organ systems-organs-organism

40. ____ is a polysaccharide that is found in plant cell walls and accounts for their strength.

Starch

Cellulose

Glycogen

Chitin

Cholesterol

41. The primary function of carbohydrates is

to transport molecules across cell membranes.

encoding the hereditary information.

to speed chemical reactions in cells.

quick fuel and short-term energy storage.

structural reinforcement of plant and fungal cell walls.

42. According to the fluid-mosaic model of membrane structure,

proteins float inside or within the phospholipid bilayer.

glycolipids form a mosaic pattern inside the cell. 

only lipids are found in the membrane.

cholesterol is the main constituent of the membrane.

proteins make up the bulk of the membrane.

43. During photosynthesis, solar energy is converted to chemical energy by the chloroplasts. The process is represented by:

carbohydrate + carbon dioxide = oxygen + water + energy

carbohydrate + oxygen = carbon dioxide + water + energy

solar energy + carbon dioxide + water = carbohydrate + oxygen

solar energy + oxygen + water = carbohydrate + oxygen

solar energy = carbohydrate + oxygen

44. If a cell lacks ATP, which of the following processes would cease to operate immediately?

osmosis

diffusion

facilitated diffusion

tonicity

sodium/potassium pump

45. Which cellular structure is responsible for packaging materials with the cell?

Golgi apparatus

mitochondria

lysosomes

ribosomes

chloroplasts

46. Which of the following molecules add stiffness and strength to the plasma membrane?

glycoproteins

enzymatic proteins

phosphate groups

phospholipids

cholesterol

47. Which of the following refers to materials only leaving the cell?

exocytosis

phagocytosis

pinocytosis

diffusion

endocytosis

48. Which nuclear structure(s) contain(s) the hereditary material?

nucleoplasm

chromatin

chloroplasts

nuclear envelope

mitochondria

49. The number of mitochondria in a cell would be a general indicator of the extent of

osmosis.

facilitated transport.

both osmosis and diffusion.

active transport.

diffusion.

50. The bones in a bird are hollow, reducing its weight for flight. This is an example of which characteristic of life?

Living things are homeostatic.

Living things reproduce.

Living things acquire materials and energy from the environment.

Living things grow and develop.

Living things are adapted.

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