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Chapter 19 1. Explain how the metabolic rate is influenced by exercise, ambient temperature, and the assimilation of food. Distinguish between the...

Chapter 19

1. Explain how the metabolic rate is influenced by exercise, ambient temperature, and the assimilation of food.

2. Distinguish between the caloric and anabolic requirements of the diet.

3. List the water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins and describe some of their functions.

4. Identify the free radicals and reactive oxygen species, and describe their significance.

5. Distinguish between the energy reserves and circulating energy substrates, identifying the molecules in each category.

6. Explain the functions of adipose tissue and the dangers of obesity.

7. Identify the brain regions involved in hunger and describe the regulation of hunger by specific neurotransmitters and hormones.

8. Identify the hormones that increase or decrease blood glucose and those that stimulate lipogenesis or lipolysis.

9. Describe how the secretions of insulin and glucagon change during periods of absorption and periods of fasting. How are these changes in hormone secretion produced?

10. Explain how the synthesis of fat in adipose cells is regulated by insulin. Also, explain how fat metabolism is regulated by insulin and glucagon during periods of absorption and fasting.

11. Define the following terms: glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis, and ketogenesis. How do insulin and glucagon affect each of these processes during periods of absorption and fasting?

12. Describe two pathways used by the liver to produce glucose for secretion into the blood. Why can't skeletal muscles secrete glucose into the blood?

13. Explain how ketoacidosis and dehydration are produced in a person with type 1 diabetes mellitus

14. Describe the causes of hyperglycemia in a person with type 2 diabetes. How may weight loss help to control this condition?

15. Explain the meaning of the terms insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, and reactive hypoglycemia.

16. Describe the effects of epinephrine and the glucocorticoids on the metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids. What is the significance of these effects as a response to stress?

17. Explain the actions of thyroxine on the basal metabolic rate. Why do people with hypothyroidism have a tendency to gain weight, and why are they less resistant to cold stress?

18. Describe the effects of growth hormone on the metabolism of lipids, glucose, and amino acids AND explain how growth hormone stimulates skeletal growth.

19. Describe the mechanisms by which the secretion of parathyroid hormone and of calcitonin is regulated.

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