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Complete 7 page APA formatted essay: Relevant Theories of Management and Application.Download file to see previous pages Each theory offers managers a unique approach for attaining organisational succ
Complete 7 page APA formatted essay: Relevant Theories of Management and Application.Download file to see previous pages
Each theory offers managers a unique approach for attaining organisational success. This paper attempts to illustrate the characteristics of different organisational theories and how they were successfully applied by various types of organisation. Nature of Scientific Management Increased efficiency of job performance is the goal of scientific management, which is the pioneering organisational theory. This was introduced by Frederick Taylor in 1909 during the beginning of industrial revolution. Taylor recognised that critical to the success of industrial firms is maximising worker productivity while minimising waste. In effect, Taylor promoted the method of standardising the job of each worker. This is done by having the managers analyse the tasks that are essential for increased efficiency and allowing them to create job designs that will maximise the division of labor. Then, the workers are given full layout of the specific tasks that needs to be accomplished (cited in Watson 1995). Furthermore, scientific management practices also involve strict levels of control. ...
In this context, scientific management theory proved significant for effective mass production. However, the scientific management practices of the 19th century in US and UK factories have compromised the morale of many workers. This then resulted to the formation and strengthening of unions in countries. They asserted that such practices, especially in car factories, have reduced their bodies into human machines by utilising them to the full extent and taking away their right to movement (Hollway 1991). Despite the drawbacks of scientific management theory on employee health and morale, one UK firm has successfully adopted scientific management practices. Hans Chains was one of the world’s famous makers of drive chain. While the organisation applied the systematic division of labor to minimise production cost and improve efficiency, it refused to adopt strict scientific management practices which are detrimental to the health of employees. Rather than giving them differential bonuses, the company implemented a policy in 1896 which allowed workers to work with only 48 hours a week. This is based on the premise that worker productivity is maximised if working hours is reduced (Witzel 2009). Moreover, in 1906, Hans Chains established the first personnel department while in 1917. it was the first firm to develop a committee for managing the shop workers. The company experienced massive success in the field by adopting the effective practices of scientific management and avoiding its drawbacks, such as exploiting the strength of workers to maximise profit (Witzel 2009).