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Create a 12 page essay paper that discusses Palliative Care in Northern Ireland.Download file to see previous pages... Another interesting fact related to international variation in colorectal cancer
Create a 12 page essay paper that discusses Palliative Care in Northern Ireland.Download file to see previous pages...
Another interesting fact related to international variation in colorectal cancer involves the geographic distribution for cancers of the colon and rectum. In locations considered to be high risk, the ratio of colon to rectal cancer incidence is approximately 2:1 or more, whereas in low-risk regions, the ratio is close to one (Wilson et al., 1994). Taking the case of Northern Ireland, between 2000 and 2004, there were 1618 male and 1297 female cases diagnosed annually, and considering the data between 1994 and 2004, the incidence rates are unchanged. Few important facts need to be noted which are very relevant to this assignment. These are, although the mortality rates have declined between 1994 and 2004 by only 1.4% in males and 2.3% in females, during this period, the incidence of colorectal cancer in Northern Ireland were higher than expected in both males and females, specifically in the areas of Newry &. Mourne and Cork. Derry and Dublin. and Donegal respectively. While assessing policy implications of a particular region on the overall outcome of cancer care, studies have typically used epidemiological data, which are based on association relations based on observations rather than controlled experiments. These studies on the population of Northern Ireland indicate that the death rates from colorectal cancer in Northern Ireland are higher than rest of the United Kingdom. There are several confounding factors to this assessment, but it is not clear despite early recognition of the problem whether this reflects a greater underlying incidence or a worse mortality (N. Ireland Cancer Registry 2009). As indicated by Kee et al. (1990), Northern Ireland has the highest underlying incidence of colorectal cancer in the United Kingdom. Epidemiological studies have indicated its relationship with dietary habits and affluence. Although the mortality rates have decreased in other parts of Northern Ireland, these decreases have not likely been caused by advances in the treatment of metastatic diseases, which still remains incurable in all parts of the world including Northern Ireland (Kee et al. 1990).
In recent years, treatment of cancer has improved in general with improvement in technology and knowledge. However, the changes in incidence rates in colorectal cancer are an important parameter to be considered. This decrease in incidence rates is more likely to be the major contributor to the reduction of colon cancer mortality for the same period across the world. This underscores the importance of prevention as a means of controlling the mortality rates for colorectal cancer. Epidemiologic interventions through community work have been recognised to be an important means of such strategies, and Northern Ireland is not an exception to that (Williams et al., 2007). The government and policies have been changed to suit the needs of cancer care in Northern Ireland. The approach is based on risk factors and their surveillance. A variety of risk factors have been identified: age, family history, environmental factors, and prior colonic disease.