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Create a 4 page essay paper that discusses Prenatal Hormone Differences.Download file to see previous pages... Hormones influence the development of sex and choices in childhood. Exposure to testoster

Create a 4 page essay paper that discusses Prenatal Hormone Differences.

Download file to see previous pages...

Hormones influence the development of sex and choices in childhood. Exposure to testosterone affects gender identity, sexual orientation, personality, sexual cognition. Drawing from scholarly works, the research indicates that opposite sex twins are affected by high concentration of testosterone in the uterus. This essay will discuss how females who have been exposed to high testosterone prenatally demonstrate notable difference in behavior and cognition that females who have not been exposed to testosterone. 2. Discussion Prenatal exposure to high testosterone levels in female results in possession of masculine behaviors and cognition as Cohen-Bendahan et al (2005, p. 230) suggest. Connellan et al (2000, p. 113) says that differences in behavior are as a result of biological factors such as high testosterone exposure. Scholars use opposite sex twin and female twins to study the effect of testosterone on the female. The assumption is females with a male twin are exposed to testosterone through fluid exchange in the uterus. Heil (2011, p. 90) reveals that females born with an opposite sex twin outperform other female in memory, understanding, and problem solving techniques. The females had a high performance in mental rotation because they had been exposed to higher levels of testosterone prenatally (Heil2011, p. 90). ...

Moreover, females who have a male sibling of close age indicated a higher mental rotation capability than the female who grew up with female siblings (Heil 2011, p. 90). The performance of the female fraternal twin with a brother was also higher than that of a female without a brother of a close age (Vuoksimaa et al 2010, p. 1070). Henderson &amp. Berenbaum (1997, p. 115) argue that sex variation are not related to hormones or hormonal transfer (exposure to testosterone prenatally) at any period during gestation. Female and male children learn and emulate how children of same sex act (Pasterski 2011, p. 264). During certain stages, children have preference for playing toys that the opposite sexes have (Henderson &amp. Berenbaum 1997, p. 115). Consequently, children who have been exposed to high levels of testosterone or adrenaline will tend to have greater interest in masculine playing objects than those who have not been exposed. Johannsen (2008, p. 1380) mentions that in their teen age and adulthood, females exposed to high levels of testosterone have a notable spatial ability. Jadva et al (2010, p. 1261) found out in their study that females pay attention to dolls while boys pay attention to cars irrespective of the color. Female children begin to love colors associated with the females – pink, for example. Female’s behavior may be as a result of socialization, as opposed to hormonal influence. Slutske et al (2010, p. 533) argue that exposure to testosterone does not have effects on behaviors such as adventure seeking and boredom susceptibility. Thus behavior is as a result of socialization where children learn to play their roles depending on their gender. Pasterski et al (2007, p.

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