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Create a 6 page essay paper that discusses Answer 3 questions about the language teaching and learning.Download file to see previous pages... The subjects were administered a grammaticality judgment t
Create a 6 page essay paper that discusses Answer 3 questions about the language teaching and learning.Download file to see previous pages...
The subjects were administered a grammaticality judgment test consisting of 276 English sentences, some grammatical and others ungrammatical. The results showed that those AOA was less than 17 performed better. In a re-analysis of this data conducted by Bialstok and Hakuta (1994), there were significant correlations in both groups if the cut-off point was taken to be 20 instead of 17. Such studies cast some doubt on the CPH. Even if one single exception to the rule is discovered, the theory is falsified. But does it deserve to be falsified? The complications arise on account of a number of factors. The tests conducted to judge the proficiency of learners is significant. They perform better in the written tests than in oral tests. Moreover, there are so many areas when we refer to linguistic competency – phonology, morphophoniology, syntax, dialect, discourse processes, pragmatics etc. De Keyser replicated Johnson and Newport’s study and concluded that there is a critical age for language acquisition provided the CPH is understood narrowly, as applying only to implicit learning of abstract structures. Other factors which matter are whether the adult learners get any instruction, what type of instruction and for what duration. We can conclude that evidence against CPH is available no doubt but evidence supporting the CPH is much more and significant. A very interesting example is that of Indian children who were made to learn by heart Sanskrit verses by heart irrespective of their mother tongue. They recited them clearly and fluently even though they did not understand the meaning. Deliberate efforts on the part of adults who could comprehend the meaning were also not successful!!! The safest way is to follow the thumb rule – the earlier, the better, in language learning, as in everything else. Q3. Which theory of SLA appeals to you most? A good theory in SLA should address questions like what does L2 knowledge consist of and how that knowledge is acquired. The roles of both nature and nurture are significant in SLA. Eacg theory deals with a different aspect of SLA. All theories contribute substantially to SLA. They are complementary to each other. Goals to SLA learning cannot be ignored, nor can process of learning, immersion or instruction. At the same time, we have to admit that something like UG does exist. The CPH also cannot be altogether discarded. However, Krashen’s Input Theory and explicit instruction is the most proven as far as success in SLA goes. Input can be specially prepared, graded, monitored and delivered in order to make SLA a well-organized, satisfying experience. Its results are also known to be durable. Q 1. Discuss and evaluate Norris and Ortega’s seminal study of the effectiveness of L2 instruction. A bulk of research reports on effectiveness of L2 instruction was published during 1980 and 1998. Norris and Ortega carried out a systematic analysis of these reports and arrived at certain important conclusions related to major aspects of L2 instruction. It was Long ( 1983 ) who first concluded that instruction makes a difference in L2 acquisition as compared to naturalistic exposure.