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Describe a situation where one could apply the Scientific Method to learn more about the natural world. Illustrate how each of the steps would be...

9. Describe a situation where one could apply the Scientific Method to learn more about the natural world. Illustrate how each of the steps would be carried out in your scenario. (Points : 5)

10. Which of the following statements about fossils is false?

a. It is likely that we will never find fossils of most species that ever lived.

b. Oxygen-rich environments are best for fossil formation.

c. Rocks at the top of Mount Everest were formed on the sea floor.

d. Fossil hunting has been pursued for at least 150 years.

11. Which of the following is most likely to be found in the fossil record?

    a.  Footprints

    b.  Skull fragments

    c.  Teeth

    d. Muscle tissue

12. The principle of superposition allows us to determine:

a. the relative age of rock strata.

b. why animals become less complex over time.

c. the absolute age of rocks.

d. which fossils are the rarest.

14. Which of the following statements is false?

a. Scientists have created complex formulae to compensate for the great changes that have occurred in radioisotope decay rates.

b. The effectiveness of radioisotopic dating has been confirmed repeatedly.

c. We cannot usually date sedimentary rock directly.

d.The oldest rocks are younger than the Earth.

15. According to current fossil evidence, which series accurately relates the order of arrival of the first members of each group from oldest to most recent?

a. Jellyfish, jawed fish, Tiktaalik, amphibians, reptiles

b. Jawed fish, amphibians, jellyfish, mammals, dinosaurs

c. Jawed fish, dinosaurs, Tiktaalik, amphibians, mammals

d. None of the above

16. Which of the following is fossil evidence that could refute evolutionary theory?

a. Rarity of fossilized human ancestor

b. Iridium which is known to disrupt radiometric dating

c. Modern animal forms found in deeper (older) strata than their supposed ancestors

d, All of the above

17. Darwin observed that:

a. recently deposited fossils resembled the modern living forms found in the same area.

b. fossils in adjacent strata more closely resembled one another than fossils separated by many strata.

c. fossilized forms were often very different than anything alive in modern times.

d. all of the above.

18. Explain why many scientists consider Archaeopteryx to represent a transitional form? Was it a dinosaur or a bird? Explain your answer.


19. Genetic information is shared between parent and offspring:

a. because it is packaged into sperm and eggs.

b. because blood types are usually predictive of paternity.

c. because a similar prenatal environment makes it so.

d. because of none of the above.

.20. DNA:

a. is made up of a linear sequence of proteins.

b. can experience changes called mutations.

c. is different in each cell of your body.

d. is none of the above.

. 21. Which of the following statements about pseudogenes is true?

a. Very few pseudogenes have been identified.

b. Pseudogenes in different species share the same mutations that made them dysfunctional because of chance.

c. Mutations in pseudogenes (except in cases when they restore function) have no real effect on fitness.

d. Pseudogenes are RNA models of real genes.

. 22. Which of the following terms is meant to describe structures that are shared by multiple species due not to common ancestry but due to similar adaptive responses?

a. Homologies

b. Analogies

c. Pseudogenes

d. Primigenes

23. The underlying structure of limbs shared by tetrapods is:

a. Two bones, to two bones, to many bones.

b. One bone, to one bone, to two bones.

c. one bone, to two bones, to many bones.

d. many bones, to one bone, to one bone.

. 24. When looking for Tiktaalik, Dr. Neil Shubin knew that he was looking for a transitional form between other fish and previously discovered tetrapods. He searched for:

a. a fish with a humerus.

b. a lizard with a humerus.

c. a fish with a wrist.

d. a fish with lungs.

. 25. Dr. Neil Shubin is a fossil hunter. He notes that one type of animal remains is frequently fossilized more than others. This most frequent fossil find is (are):

a. toe bones.

b. ants in amber.

c. footprints.

d. teeth.

26. Which of the following statements are false?

a. The process of forming teeth is similar to that of feather formation.

b. Conodonts were seldom initially found whole.

c. Modern-day fish called ostracoderms are the only living relatives of conodonts.

d.None of the above; all of the above statements are true.

27. Provide examples of vestigial structures and seemingly poorly designed structures in animals. Why do some consider these structures to be more powerful evidence of evolution than that provided by "near perfect" adaptations?

29. Many animals share the same genetic controls for embryological development. This is referred to as:

a. atavism.

b. holoplasm.

c. deep homology.

d, nucleotide activism.

30. The reason that cells in an eye of an embryo are different than the cells in its pancreas:

a. is that they contain different genes.

b. is explained by homologous phylogeny.

c. is that different genes are turned on/off in these cells during development.

d. is none of the above.

31. Gremlin is an interesting developmental gene that:

a. disables another developmental gene that otherwise causes the death of cells between digits.

b. is responsible for the fin development in Tiktaalik.

c. gives sharks two heads occasionally.

d. is none of the above.

32. The nucleotide codons that are used to signal which amino acids are used in protein production are:

a. two nucleotides long.

b. three nucleotides long.

c. four nucleotides long.

d. none of the above.

34. Which of the following statements is false?

a. Human embryos have tails.

b. Human embryos have structure homologous to gill arches.

c. Human embryos are covered with hair during a part of their development.

d. None of the above.

35. Which of the following statements is true?

a. Humans are unusual animals because their genetic code is made up of six different nucleotides (e.g., As, Ts, Cs, Gs, etc.).

b. There is growing evidence that the similarity in the genetic codes of many animals is just an analogy and not homology.

c. All genes of every living thing will function properly in every other species.

d. None of the above.

Question 36. 36. How did scientists encourage a shark fin to develop in ways similar to a hand? What is the significance of their findings to evolutionary theory?


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