Devry JADM250 midterm exam

 

Question 1.1. (TCO 1) The idea that knowledge generates power, and conversely, power generates knowledge, is called __________________. (Points : 4)

the power continuum

the corruption of power

the knowledge/power dynamic

circular reasoning

none of the above

Question 2.2. (TCO 1) What is the primary source of information on criminal victimization in the United States? (Points : 4)

The Federal Bureau of Investigation

The National Crime Victimization Survey

The American Victimization Association

The National Department of Victims of Crime

The Department of Victimization

Question 3.3. (TCO 1) Nonreactive research is _____________. (Points : 4)

a method that involves the collection and reanalysis of existing quantitative data

a nonreactive method used to examine the content, or information and symbols, contained in written documents or other communication media

the unobtrusive collection of data that have usually been left behind by others

a method that uses a written questionnaire or formal interview to gather quantitative data on the backgrounds, behaviors, beliefs, or attitudes of a large number of people or agencies

a method in which the researcher engages the natural environment of their subjects and strives for an up close, personal, and highly detailed understanding of the research subject's culture

Question 4.4. (TCO 1) A method in which the researcher engages the natural environment of their subjects and strives for an up close, personal, and highly detailed understanding of the research

subject's culture is called _________________. (Points : 4)

survey research

experimentation

ethnographic field research

nonreactive research

content analysis

Question 5.5. (TCO 1) Authority knowledge is ______________. (Points : 4)

a basis of knowledge in which we rely on what someone in a position of authority says

a basis of knowledge in which we accept something as being true because of a long-running custom or belief

a basis of knowledge in which we rely on commonly accepted, ordinary reasoning

a basis of knowledge in which we rely on the media’s construction of the truth, which often relies on claims made by politicians and government officials

a basis of knowledge in which we rely on our own lived experiences

Question 6.6. (TCO 1) The premature closure effect is _______________. (Points : 4)

statements that go far beyond what can be justified based on the data or empirical observations that one has

making observations in a way that simply reinforces preexisting thinking, rather than attempting to observe in a balanced and critical manner

making a judgment or reaching a decision and ending in an investigation, before one has the amount or depth of evidence required by scientific standards

allowing the prior reputation of persons, places, or things to color one’s evaluations, rather than attempting to evaluate in a neutral, equal manner

Question 7.7. (TCO 1) Making observations in a way that simply reinforces preexisting thinking, rather than attempting to observe in a balanced and critical manner is called _________ . (Points : 4)

halo effect

premature closure

selective observation

overgeneralization

Question 8.8. (TCO 1) The word data means ________________. (Points : 4)

the empirical evidence or information that one gathers carefully according to rules or procedures.

a system of interconnected ideas that condenses and organizes knowledge for purposes of understanding and/or explanation

observations that people experience through the senses—touch, sight, hearing, smell, and taste

the scientific norm that says research should be judged only on the basis of scientific merit

Question 9.9. (TCO 1) A cohort study... (Points : 4)

examines the same people over time with check-up points

examines different people at multiple times

examines a group of people at once

examines a different group of people with similar characteristics over time

examines a group of people over time

Question 10.10. (TCO 1) Positivists’ social science is _____________________. (Points : 4)

a critical process of inquiry that generates liberating knowledge so as to reveal structural and cultural inhibiting forces in an attempt to help people change their living conditions and build a better world for themselves.

an approach to research that emphasizes the systematic analysis and detailed study of people and text in order to arrive at understandings and interpretations of how people construct and maintain meaning within their social worlds

a method for combining deductive logic with precise empirical observations in order to discover and confirm a set or probabilistic causal laws that can be used to predict general patterns of human activity

a philosophical position that views reality and causal processes as fairly straightforward and determinable through scientific observation

Question 11.11. (TCO 1) Interpretive social science (ISS) can be traced to German sociologist ______. (Points : 4)

Auguste Comte

Sigmund Freud

Sir Karl Popper

Karl Marx

Max Weber

Question 12.12. (TCO 1) Critical social science is ____________________. (Points : 4)

a critical process of inquiry that generates liberating knowledge so as to reveal structural and cultural inhibiting forces in an attempt to help people change their living conditions and build a better world for themselves

an approach to research that emphasizes the systematic analysis and detailed study of people and text in order to arrive at understandings and interpretations of how people construct and maintain meaning within their social worlds

a method for combining deductive logic with precise empirical observations in order to discover and confirm a set or probabilistic causal laws that can be used to predict general patterns of human activity

a philosophical position that views reality and causal processes as fairly straightforward and determinable through scientific observation

Question 13.13. (TCO 1) Ways of thinking that are constructed by powerful forces in society that are false and act against our best interests are called ______. (Points : 4)

praxis

reification

false consciousness

dialectic relationship

bounded autonomy

Question 14.14. (TCO 1) An empirically testable version of a theoretical proposition that has not yet been tested or verified with empirical evidence. It is most often used in deductive theorizing. (Points : 4)

hypothesis

proposition

theory

typology

concept

Question 15.15. (TCO 1) A _____________________ is a type of theoretical explanation about why events occur and how things work expressed by outlining an overall structure and emphasizing locations,

interdependences, distances, or relations among positions in that structure. (Points : 4)

positive social science explanation

causal-structural explanation

interpretive explanation

consensus explanation

conflict social science explanation

Question 16.16. (TCO 2) Fraud that occurs when a researcher steals the ideas or writings of another or uses them without citing the source is called ___________. (Points : 4)

loss of objectivity

scientific irresponsibility

research fraud

scientific misconduct

plagiarism

Question 17.17. (TCO 2) A famous research study in which the researcher observed men engaging in sexual acts in a public bathroom, and then tracked them down a year later to conduct covert interviews, is called _______________. (Points : 4)

Zimbardo Prison Experiment

The Attica Study

Humphrey’s “tearoom trade”

Stanley Milgram’s Experiment

Van Maanen Study

Question 18.18. (TCO 2) A statement, usually written, that explains aspects of a study to participants and asks for their voluntary agreement to participate before the study begins is called ________. (Points : 4)

freedom of choice

free will document

permission slip

voluntary consent

informed consent

Question 19.19. (TCO 2) The role that a field researcher adopts where he or she completely disguises his or her true identity and research purposes is called _________. (Points : 4)

shallow cover

sting operation

undercover operation

deep cover

secret research

Question 20.20. (TCO 2) Principles and guidelines developed by professional organizations to guide research practice and clarify the line between ethical and unethical behavior is called _______. (Points : 4)

professionalism

code of ethics

professional conduct

rules of engagement

rules of procedure

Question 21.21. (TCO 2) Academic periodicals that publish peer-reviewed research and essays usually found in college and university libraries are called ________. (Points : 4)

magazines

Newsweek and Time

research books

scholarly journals

all of the above

Question 22.22. (TCO 2) Triangulation of theory is ____________. (Points : 4)

mixing qualitative and quantitative styles of research and data

taking multiple measures of a phenomenon

multiple observers of a phenomenon

viewing phenomenon from multiple theoretical lenses

Question 23.23. (TCO 2) Triangulation of observers is ___________________. (Points : 4)

mixing qualitative and quantitative styles of research and data

observing a phenomenon at different time intervals

having multiple observers of a phenomenon

viewing phenomenon from multiple theoretical lenses

Question 24.24. (TCO 2) This expression is used with data that comes in the form of numbers. (Points : 4)

numeric-based data

verbal data

soft data

hard data

Question 25.25. (TCO 2) An intervening variable is ___________________. (Points : 4)

a concept that varies, or an empirical measure that can take on multiple values.

the categories or levels of a variable

a cause variable that produces an effect of results on a dependent variable in a causal hypothesis

the effect or result variable that is caused by an independent variable in a causal hypothesis

a variable that comes between the independent and dependent variables and shows the link or causal mechanism between them

Question 26.26. (TCO 2) An independent variable is __________________. (Points : 4)

a concept that varies, or an empirical measure that can take on multiple values.

the categories or levels of a variable

a cause variable that produces an effect of results on a dependent variable in a causal hypothesis

the effect or result variable that is caused by an independent variable in a causal hypothesis

a variable that comes between the independent and dependent variables and shows the link or causal mechanism between them

Question 27.27. (TCO 2) A double-barreled hypothesis is: (Points : 4)

A statement of a causal explanation or proposition that has at least one independent and one dependent variable, and has yet to be empirically tested.

A hypothesis that states there is no significant effect of an independent variable on a dependent variable.

A hypothesis paired with the null hypothesis with two independent variables in which it is unclear whether one or the other variable, or both in combination, produce an effect.

A confusing and poorly designed hypothesis with two independent variables making it unclear whether one or the other variable, or both in combination, produce an effect.

Question 28.28. (TCO 2) An experimental hypothesis is ______________. (Points : 4)

a statement of a causal explanation or proposition that has at least one independent and one dependent variable, and has yet to be empirically tested

a hypothesis that states there is no significant effect of an independent variable on a dependent variable

a hypothesis paired with the null hypothesis with two independent variables in which it is unclear whether one or the other variable, or both in combination, produce an effect

a confusing and poorly designed hypothesis with two independent variables making it unclear whether one or the other variable, or both in combination, produce an effect

Page 2

Question 1.1. (TCO 4) The process of developing clear, rigorous, systematic conceptual definitions for abstract ideas/concepts is called _____________. (Points : 4)

organization

logic

clarification

conceptualization

defining your terms

Question 2.2. (TCO 4) The definition of a variable in terms of the specific actions to measure or indicate it in the empirical world is called _____________. (Points : 4)

operational definition

operationalization

clarification

clear conceptualization

organization

Question 3.3. (TCO 4) Equivalence reliability is ________________. (Points : 4)

measurement reliability across time; a measure that yields consistent results at different time points, assuming that what is being measured does not change itself

measurement reliability across groups; a measure that yields consistent results for various social groups

measurement reliability across indicators; a measure that yields consistent results using different specific indicators, assuming that all measure the same construct

how well an empirical indicator and the conceptual definition of the construct that the indicator is suppose to measure fit together

Question 4.4. (TCO 4) When a researcher divides the indicators (questions) into two groups and determines whether both halves give the same results, it is called _________. (Points : 4)

equivalence

split-half method

grouping technique

dividing

cluster sampling

Question 5.5. (TCO 4) Concurrent validity is ______________. (Points : 4)

a type of measurement validity in which an indicator makes sense as a measure of a construct in the judgment of others, especially in the scientific community

measurement validity that requires that a measure represents all of the aspects of the conceptual definition of a construct

measurement validity that relies on some independent outside verification

a type of measurement validity that uses multiple indicators and has two indicators and two subtypes: how well indicators of one construct converge and how well indicators of different constructs diverge

a measure of validity that relies on a preexisting and already accepted measure to verify the indicator of a construct

Question 6.6. (TCO 4) Convergent validity is _________________. (Points : 4)

a type of measurement validity in which an indicator makes sense as a measure of a construct in the judgment of others, especially in the scientific community

a measurement validity that relies on the occurrence of a future event or behavior that is logically consistent to verify the indicator of a construct

measurement of validity that relies on some independent outside verification

a type of measurement validity for multiple indicators based on the idea that indicators of one construct will act alike or converge. (p. 191)

a measurement validity for multiple indicators based on the idea that indicators of different constructs diverge (p.191)

Question 7.7. (TCO 4) An interval-level of measurement is _________________. (Points : 4)

the lowest, least-precise level of measurements for which there is a difference in type only among the categories of variable

a level of measurement that identifies a difference among categories of a variable and allows the categories to be rank ordered as well

a level of measurement that identifies differences among variable attributes, rank categories, and measures distance between categories, but there is no true zero

the highest, most-precise level of measurement; variable attributes can be rank ordered, the distance between them precisely measured, and there is an absolute zero

Question 8.8. (TCO 4) A nominal-level of measurement is ________________. (Points : 4)

the lowest, least-precise level of measurements for which there is a difference in type only among the categories of variable

a level of measurement that identifies a difference among categories of a variable and allows the categories to be rank ordered as well

a level of measurement that identifies differences among variable attributes, rank categories, and measures distance between categories, but there is no true zero

the highest, most-precise level of measurement; variable attributes can be rank ordered, the distance between them precisely measured, and there is an absolute zero

Question 9.9. (TCO 4) Variables in which the attributes can be measured with only a limited number of distinct, separate categories are called ________________. (Points : 4)

independent variables

discrete variables

continuous variables

dependent variables

spurious variables

Question 10.10. (TCO 4) _______ is considered the principle that when using multiple indicators to measure a construct, all indicators should consistently fit together and indicate a single construct. (Points : 4)

Unidimensionality

Weighted index

Standardization

All of the above

Question 11.11. (TCO 4) A smaller set of cases that a researcher selects from a larger pool and generalizes to the population is called a ___________. (Points : 4)

group

small group

sampling

population

sampling case

Question 12.12. (TCO 4) The concretely specified large group of many cases from which a researcher draws a sample and to which results from a sample are generalized is called __________. (Points : 4)

sampling frame

target population

sample

population

sampling case

Question 13.13. (TCO 4) A sample in which the researcher uses a random number table or similar mathematical random process so that each sampling element in the population will have an equal probability of being selected is called ____________. (Points : 4)

a sampling probability

a sampling selection

a random sample

a population selection

random chance

Question 14.14. (TCO 6) ________________ is a type of random sample that uses multiple stages and is often used to cover wide geographic areas in which aggregated units are randomly selected and then samples are drawn from the sampled aggregated units, or clusters. (Points : 4)

Cluster sampling

Systematic sampling

Confidence intervals

Sampling interval

Stratified sampling

Question 15.15. (TCO 6) A stratified sample is ________________. (Points : 4)

a random sample in which the researcher first identifies a set of mutually exclusive and exhaustive categories, divides the sampling frame by the categories, and then uses random selection to select cases from each category

a range of values, usually a little higher or lower than a specific value found in a sample, within which a researcher has a specified and high degree of confidence that the populations parameters lie

the inverse of the sampling ration that is used when selecting cases in systematic sampling.

a random sample in which a researcher selects every kth (e. g., 12th) case in the sample frame using a sampling interval

a type of random sample that uses multiple stages and is often used to cover wide geographic areas in which aggregated units are randomly selected and then samples are drawn from the sampled aggregated units, or clusters

Question 16.16. (TCO 6) Deviant case sampling is ________________. (Points : 4)

a nonrandom sample in which the researcher first identifies general categories into which cases or people will be selected, and then he or she selects cases to reach a predetermined number of cases in each category.

a nonrandom sample in which the researcher uses a wide range of methods to locate all possible cases of a highly specific and difficult-to-reach population

a nonrandom sample in which the researcher selects specific times, locations, or events to observe in order to develop a social theory or evaluate theoretical ideas

a nonrandom sample, especially used by qualitative researchers, in which a researcher selects unusual or nonconforming cases purposely as a way to provide greater insight into social processes or a setting

a nonrandom sample in which a researcher tries to find as many relevant cases as possible, until time, financial resources, or his or her energy is exhausted, or until there is no new information or diversity from the cases

Question 17.17. (TCO 6) The group that does not get the treatment in experimental research is called the ______. (Points : 4)

testable group

experimental group

research group

non-treatment group

control group

Question 18.18. (TCO 6) A one-group pretest-posttest design is/are _________________. (Points : 4)

an effect of two independent variables operating simultaneously and in combination on a dependent variable. It is a larger effect than occurs from the sum of each independent variable working separately.

experimental designs that lack random assignment or use shortcuts and are much weaker than the classical experimental design. They can be substituted in situations in

which an experimenter cannot use all of the features of a classical experimental design, but have weaker internal validity an experimental design with only an experimental group and a posttest, no pretest

a pre-experimental design that has one group, a pretest, treatment, and a posttest. It lacks a control group and random assignment.

an experimental design in which the dependent variable is measured periodically across many time points, and the treatment occurs in the midst of such measures, often only once

Question 19.19. (TCO 6) An equivalent time-series design is ___________________. (Points : 4)

an effect of two independent variables operating simultaneously and in combination on a dependent variable. It is a larger effect than occurs from the sum of each independent variable working separately

experimental designs that lack random assignment or use shortcuts and are much weaker than the classical experimental design. They can be substituted in situations in

which an experimenter cannot use all of the features of a classical experimental design, but have weaker internal validity

an experimental design in which there are several repeated pretests, posttests, and treatments for one group, often over a period of time

a pre-experimental design that has one group, a pretest, treatment, and a posttest. It lacks a control group and random assignment

an experimental design in which the dependent variable is measured periodically across many time points, and the treatment occurs in the midst of such measures, often only once

Question 20.20. (TCO 6) A ______________ is a threat to internal validity in experiments due to natural processes of growth, boredom, and so on that occur during the experiment and affect the dependent variable. (Points : 4)

history effects

natural effects

time series effects

experimental effects

maturation effect

Question 21.21. (TCO 6) A threat to internal validity that occurs when the very process of measuring in the pretest can have an impact on the dependent variable. (Points : 4)

history effects

testing effects

time series effects

experimental effects

maturation effect

Question 22.22. (TCO 6) A problem in survey research question writing that occurs when a highly respected group or individual is associated with an answer or choice is called _________. (Points : 4)

jargon

ambiguity

prestige bias

leading language

misleading assumption

Question 23.23. (TCO 6) A survey question that contains more than one issue and can create respondent confusion or ambiguous answers is called ________________. (Points : 4)

jargon

ambiguity

prestige bias

leading language

double-barreled questions

Question 24.24. (TCO 6) A survey technique that asks respondents to disclose information about their own criminal behaviors is called _____________. (Points : 4)

a police report

a hidden crime survey

self-report surveys

the Uniform Crime Reports

the National Crime Victimization Study

Question 25.25. (TCO 6) A quasi-filter question is _________________. (Points : 4)

a survey research question in which respondents are first asked whether they have an opinion or know about a topic; then only those with an opinion or knowledge are asked a specific question about the topic

a survey research question that includes the answer choice “No Opinion,” “Unsure,” or “Don’t Know”

a type of survey research question in which the answer categories do not include a “No Opinion” or “Don’t Know” option

all of the above

Question 26.26. (TCO 6) A classical experimental design is _______________. (Points : 4)

a type of experimental design that considers the impact of several independent variables simultaneously

an experimental design that has random assignment, a control group, and a pretest and posttest for each group

an experimental design used to examine whether the order of sequence in which subjects receive multiple versions of the treatment has an effect

an experimental design in which subjects are randomly assigned to two control groups and two experimental groups

an experimental design that has all of the parts of the classical design except a pretest

Question 27.27. (TCO 6) A two-group posttest-only design is ________________. (Points : 4)

a type of experimental design that considers the impact of several independent variables simultaneously

an experimental design that has random assignment, a control group, and a pretest and posttest for each group

an experimental design used to examine whether the order of sequence in which subjects receive multiple versions of the treatment has an effect

an experimental design in which subjects are randomly assigned to two control groups and two experimental groups

an experimental design that has all of the parts of the classical design except a pretest.

 

 

 

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