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assess the evolution and impact of canada's aboriginal policies since the indian act of 1876

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    ****** *** ** ** ****** ** uncontestable **** of *** ********** ********* ** ****** *** decades **** ************* and ********* ***** of federal *********** ******** almost all aspects ** ********** **** **** *** ****** ** **** ********** *** **** tenure systems ** ************ ** ********** cultural ********* **** ********** *** ****** Act ******* *** ************** *** ***** * ************* Indian” and as **** has **** the ******* ***** of Aboriginal ***** over ******* attempts to ******* ********** ******** *** ********** The importance ** **** ******** *********** is *** ******** ****** At the ********* ***** ********** *** ************** ******* ** the ****** Act ***** ****** ********* ** *** ****** ** ****** *** ********** *** ***** *** *** *********** ** **** ******** and no ****** ******** ************** ****** At the same time recently ********* ******* **** claims *********** have ********** the ********* ** the Indian *** **** ******** Indigenous groups ********* *** ******* *** **** complex ********** on governance taxation *** ********** ** ********** **********

    Since

    being ****** ** ********** ** **** *** ****** Act *** been *** ********** *** ********** ******* ** ****** *** documents ** Canadian ******* have ********* ** **** debate ***** and sorrow ** *** Indian *** The *********** persists ** * central element ** *** ********** of ********** affairs ** the country ***** ********** anger **** ********** and ******* ***** of the Indian Act ** in-depth *** ******** ********** politicians *** *********** ****** ******** ******* ** ** the value and ******* ** *** legislation **** ** hardly ********** ***** **** the ********* ********** and political ******** ** ********** *********** ****** *** ******* **** *** *********** **** ******* *** distorted ** *** ********** ** ****** *** government systems It

    **

    ********* to ********** **** *** ******* *** ****** ** *** ****** Act *** ****** Act ********* *** **** assumptions **** ***** ********** ******* ** the ******** Euro- ******** ******* in *** *** ** **** 19th ******* Its ***** ******** summarized ** ********* *** “civilization ********** and assimilation” *** Government ** ****** ****** ********** people ** wards that Indigenous communities *** *********** **** ********* ** managing ***** ******* **** *** nation ****** ********** to integrate Indigenous cultures **** *** ******** ********** *** **** *** ***** ******* *** ** ** ********* **** the rest ** Canadian ******* ***** **** were ready *** the ********** *** Indian *** was a powerful tool ** the ***** ** *** ******* ********** ****** federal ***** ******** *** ********* ** ****** **** ******* supervise ********** ***** *** ***** funds ****** the ******** and family ***** ** individual ********** people and **** *********** ******** ***** *** ******** ****** ** hundreds ** ********* ** ******************* ** the federal ************ *** ****** *** *** Government of ****** granted ****** wide-ranging ********* **** the ***** ** Aboriginal ******* *** *********** *** *** ******* * ************* Indian” ******* ******* membership for *** ****** bands ********** *** ******* ***** ***** ** *** *** Indian ****** ********* ** *** Government ** ****** *** ************ ***** over elected ********** ********* *** **** ***** ******* under the ***** *** conditions set *** ** *** Act ********** people *** ***** ****** **** most ***** ********* ************* ** a **** **** *** voting ****** ** ***** ********* **** ***** ******** ****** Indians **** ****** *** *********** ** vote *** ********** *********** *** process of *************** which ******** *** ******* ** an ********** from the **** ** ****** ******* ***** were provisions for avoluntary **** ******* by ** individual *** *********** *************** ***** ******** when a status ****** ******* university ****** * doctor or ****** or was otherwise ****** ** government ********* to ** ***** *** ***** **** *** Canadian ************* Indian *** **** *** ********** ** Indian Affairs *** its ***** ******* ******* **** ******* ***** *** ********* *** ********** **** to regulate ******** *** trade **** Aboriginal ****** *** *** ****** the primary ***** ** ******** ******* ****** ** changing expectations and ******** ***** *********** ********** ** *** ****** *** ****** ********* cultural ********** **** ** *** *** Dance and *** ******** ****** ********** *********** **** hiring ******* to ****** claims against *** ********** **** ******* ****** ******** ** ********** ********** ******* and *********** **** ******* ***** allowed ****** ****** ** ******** *** ******** ** ****** on *** off ******** *********** ********** ** *** Indian *** ** **** removed **** ** *** more ********* elements of ****** Act *** prohibitions ** ****** *** ******* *********** ******** ***** *** ****** ** ***

    final

    ****** ** *** ***** ********** on Aboriginal ******* ********** *** Indian Act

    **

    1876 ******* ** ****** legislative ********* **** *** ******* ** *** ******* *** in ********* *** ***** ** ***** it *** ********** ******* ******* **** Indian ********* structures land ******* patterns and ******** *** economic *********** **** ********** ********** ** ******** to need ** complete the ********** policies inherited from *** colonial predecessors Indian ****** was *** ***** *** *** expressed ** *** *********** by *** minister ** *** ******** ***** ***** **** *** ***** *** was ********** ** Parliament: ********** ******* **** ****** be ******* ** ****** ** ** white ********** There *** ** ** ** ****** ground * **** ** powers

    and

    * description ** ************ authority **** *** ** justice ** the ****** ** *** ****** *** on ********** people ** ****** *** Indian *** ** ****** *** simply * **** **** ** *** ********** of ****** to ******** ********** ******* **** ***** Nations ****** ****** almost all other ********* ****************** ******* people *** ************* fewer rights *** ********* privileges *** ********** ********* ************* control **** ********** **** *********** ***** *** when they **** ** ****** *** ********** of ***** **** *** ******** resources *********** **** from ******** *** *********** ********** to shape ********** cultures *** dominating daily ******* ******* the ***** aggressive hand ** ******************* ****** ******* ** ** ********* to ********** *** ******** the ****** and ******** ************ ** **** ***** ******* ********** ************ ********** ******** **** dispiritedness and * ******** ***** ** ************* **** the ******** ********* ****** are all ******* ********** from * ****** **** ******** ****** room for individualism ********** action or an ****** ********** agenda *** ********* and ********* **

    ***

    Indian *** *** *** **** **** ********** *********** only ******** *** ** *** ***** *** ************ *** does it **** **** **** ********* ************* ******** and ********* practices just because ******* legislation ******* other models ** numerous instances – *** rejection of *** ************* by **** ***** ***** Nations ** *** **** ******* ******* ********** *********** ***** **** **** to ****** ****** ** ******** ************ imposed ** the ******* ********** ****************** ****** *** *********** **** ******* **** ****** and councils ***** lacked ********** in the **** ** their ****** ***** ********* ** ******* *** ****** *** ********** *** ** ********** ****** and traditional political ******* even **** *** of *** ******** authority and ********** ******* ******* ****** ******* *** **** councils ******* *** ******* ***** the ****** **** Resistance ** the ****** Act ***

    ***********

    * ******* theme ** **** 19th *** **** ******* Aboriginal ********* **** ** **** ********** challenges of *** legitimacy of *** ******* ****************** *********** **** resulted ** ************ ********* and legal ******** including ********* ** the Government of ****** *** *** ******* ***** ***** ********** ** ******* ** Aboriginal **** *** ******** ****** *** a careful flaunting of ****** Act *********** *** federal ****************** ******** ***** ******** harsh *********** ******** *** ********** ** the ****** *** **** ** the ********* ** outlaw *** ******** **** subsequent arrests ** ***** *** ******** ********* ** ***** cultural ********** and the *********** ** *** hiring ** lawyers ** pursue ********** ****** ******* *** ****** *** ******* ** **** **** did *** stop Indigenous ****** *** **** continued ** **** *** organize ********** ******** ********** ** *** **** ** ********* ******* ** ********** to **** **** *** ******** ***** ******* *** ********** ******* *** **** ********** ** * daily ***** in ** oppressive *** unrelenting ****** **** ****** **** ******* **** ***** ***** *** *** *********** ** *********** ** ******* Canadian ******** **** *** expansion of ********** political organizations

    ***

    protests ** *** ***** *** ****** *** **** under ******* scrutiny ********** *********** *** supporters ******* ************ ****** ** ******** the colonial *** paternalistic imperatives ** *** Indian *** ** a ******** disbelieving ******** *** ****** **** ************** Canadians **** **** ********* ** Indigenous ******* ** the ***** ******* and few *** ******* **** assumed **** *** **** of government was gentle *** benign *** authoritarian *** controlling Indigenous ******* ********** the fundamental ********** entrenched in *** Indian *** ***** ******* for ***** ********** on ****** *** ***** rights *** ********* convinced the ********** ** Canada ** back *** **** *** **** *********** and ********* ******** ** *** legislation *** ****** *** ****** a ****** ** intense

    *********

    ****** and **** ******* of ********** ********** ** ****** led ** *** **** ** ***** ******** ****** Trudeau *** **** ********** ******* managed by **** Chrétien ******** ** ****** ******* *** ******** *********** reviewed *** Indian *** ********* considerable ****** *** ********* *** *************** ** the much ****** Hawthorne ****** ************ ** identify the ********** causes ** Aboriginal disengagement from Canadian society ** **** * *** ***** ******* *** ********** ** ****** ******** *** ***** ***** ** Indian ******* in 1969 Trudeau *** * well-established ******** *** nationalism in Canadian ******* *** likewise ******* ******* ****** *** any ***** ** Canadians *** ***** ***** ******* to change **** ** ******** the elimination ** ****** reserves *** *** ** *** ****** ***** position ** status ******* *** shift ** ******** *** Indians **** the ******* ** ********** *********** ** *** *** ***** ***** ********* *** *********** ** *** ********** rights of ****** Indians **** greater integration **** the individualistic Canadian *********** *** ********** ***** *** ********* **** ********** politicians ***

    ***********

    *** ***** *** ******** ************* ****** on *** **** ** proceed *** ************ for *** ******** **** ******** ********** political leaders **** notably Harold ******** ********* ** *** ****** *********** ** ******* responded **** ******* **** *** *** ***** ***** ** an extreme *** of colonialism *********** *** **** ***** ** ********** identity and ****** ************ *** ********** leadership **** ** ***** that **** ******* ******* ************* with the rest ** *** country ****** **** ******** ************ of *** need to ********* *** welfare-based economies of **** ******** ******* *** **** ***** ******** ** ******** *********** ******** of *********** ********** ***** *************** *********** ********** acceptance ** the ***** ***** ***** ** *********** ******* * ********** ** ******* *** ****** The ********** ** ****** backed down although **** moved very ****** **** **** the ********** ****** **** *** Indian Act *** *** reserves ******* ***** *** *********** *********** to *** separation of ********** *** ***** ********* and thereby ****** ***** ******** and social ************ *** decades ********* the ****** over *** 1969 ***** *****

    saw

    dramatic ******* ** *** ***** and ********* status ** Aboriginal peoples ** ****** *** Government ** ****** reluctantly agreed to ********* ********** ******** and ************* ****** Dozens ** ************ ********* ** the ***** ****** ****** *** often ********* ****** ******** ********** Aboriginal *********** ********* **** effectively on *** national ***** *** ******* * ********* ** ********* ***** ** the *************** ********* and ************** life **** managed ** *** *** attention ** *** ******** electorate *** for * time *********** * ***** ******** ***** ** ****** ******* for ********** *********** Many *********** ********** with *** ****** ** *** ********* process **** *** federal *** provincial governments to ***** ******* redress for ************ ********** securing ** the process ********* *********** of a wide ***** ** **** ******** *** political rights ** the ***** ***** *** Canadians **** **** **** passing attention to ********** ******** by *** *** ** the century the ********* and ***** battles ** ********** ****** and *********** ***** ********* provincial and national ********* ******** • *** Future ** *** ****** Act in ******* *** ***********

    **

    ********** ********* **** ********** *** relations **** *** rest ** the country *** changing ******* For *********** *** ****** Act ******* ******* ********** ********** of ********** affairs *** *** *** ***** *** ************** ********** ****** ***** ********** ****** lived ****** *** ********* to control ***** ***** Much attention *** focused ** the **** ******* ************* of ***** ******* ****** **** ** *** pass regulations ********* ********* *** reserves attempts to ******* *** ******** *** *** ***** and other crucial ******** ********* *** restrictions on ********** ****** *** *** right ** own property ** is ******* ** understand *** ************* ****** of the Indian Act ** ********** **** *** ****** Act *********** ****** ********** *********** *** ******* **** status ******* operated within *** ******** of *** legislation ** interpreted *** implemented ** *** ********** ** ****** ******** ** ** * ****** ****** ** ****** *** ** ** ******** in

    a

    ************ ****************** which enveloped ***** ****** ***** *** ********* *** ***** ******** **** ******* ******* ***** to determine ***** ******* ** ** this all-inclusive ***** ******* *** ******* ** being under *** ********* ***** ******* of a ******* political authority – **** stripped **** First ******* autonomy ******** ***** ********** *** restricted ***** ******* ** ******* *********** with ***** ********* ***** ************ ****** ******* ************ *** a ***** ** independence; they *** ** ****** *** foundation of ********** ************** *** ******** **** ******** to ********** *** **** impact of *** Indian Act **** **** **** ****** *** ******* of specific clauses ********** ** *********** and **** reflect more ******* on *** **** ******** *** ************* piece of ********** *********** **** a ***** ******* ** ****** ******* ****** the ******* **** **** **** lesser ******** ****** ****** and ********* ****** *** most ***** ****** freedoms and ************* available ** ***** ********* The ****** *** ** **** * ****** ** ******** *** ********* ********** *** ** * **** **** and pervasive sense the ***** of **** Aboriginal suffering discouragement *** cultural ***** ** ** ** hardly ********** **** ********** ******* often refer ** *** Indian

    ***

    **** contempt *** ******** ** ** **** **** to ******* *** **** ****** ******* continue ** ******* the ************ of *** legislation ****** **** ********** and ******* Aboriginal ******* **** ** the ********** *********** ********* ********* within ****** derive ***** power **** *** ****** Act *** Chiefs *** Councilors ******* ***** *** ********** ******* under its authority *** ********** ****** **************** ******** ********* ** *** ********** ** ****** Affairs **** *********** ************ those ** *** **** ******* ******* ******** ***** **** ******** under *** Indian *** for *********** *** are familiar with *** ********** *** administrative *** political ********** *** ****** Act while the ****** ** **** ***** Nations **** ** also *** legal and ************** focus ** ********** *************** *** *** also ***** ***** **** *** Government ** Canada *** an ******* *** ************* *** ** **************** to ***** ******* ****** ** *** ******* ******** ****** ******* ** special and distinctive ******* *** ****** about *** Indian *** **** the **** 40 years *** ************** ****

    ******

    by *** ******** intent ** the ***** ***** ** **** *** ****** ** the **** ***** to ********* the ****** Act which **** ********** ******* ********* *** ****** ** *** ******* ****************** **** ** eliminate all ******* ********** *** ****** *** status Indians ** other ***** the ******* government ********* * desirable *** – *********** *** ****** Act – **** ** *********** ******* – ********* ****** ******* of *********** ***** and ********* ****** and government *********** *** ************ ********* ********** ******* ***** ******** the Indian *** **** occurred ******* ** ******** ******** ** *** *********** ** federal *********** to ***** Nations ****** ****** ** *** ***** ***** ********** peoples are ************** **** **** ***** *** federal ****************** ******** ********** ** changing *** ****** Act ******* ********* ******* *** it is **** ******* *** Indian *** ** least ******* *** ********** of ****** to the *********** of the ******* legal ****** ** ********** ******* ****** ** ******* *** ****** ****** quickly **** **** *** ******** ** the ****** ***

    **

    *** ***** point *** ***************************** relations *** ********* ** the ********** ** ****** ******* ** the lives ** ***** ******* *********** recedes ******* **** **** ******* **** **** 80% ** the funds ***** ** ****** Indians are ******* ** **** or tribal *********** **** **** expand ** *** coming ***** ****** ******** **** claims ********** *** ********** ** ********* ****** ** ******* Columbia in **** have ************** ********** *********** and ******* **** ** the ********* *** ********* of the ****** *** ** *** Nisga’a *** ***** First Nations **** experienced *** agreements ** ********* ****** ** the Lheidli ************* Band *** Maa-nulth ***** ******* and the ********** First ****** all include provisions ********** ** ***** ** *** ************* and ***** ************** ******** of ******* ** **************** ************ with *** **** range ** ****** ** the ***** *** *********** *** raised **** ******* *** bar ** ********** ********** *************** ********** like **** ********** ** *** ******** ***** ****** similarly ********* **** of the authority of *** ****** *** ****** *** ***** ** specific ***** ******** *** current push to ******** ****** ******** in British ******** and ****** negotiations in *** *********

    will

    **** time result ** **** **** status Indian *********** ******** ** **** *** from ***** *** Indian *** They **** ******* operate ***** *** ***** *** ********** ** ********** that ********* the ********** of ********** governments *** ****** ********** law-making ********* ******* the ********** ** ****** *** **** ****** ** ***** ways ****** the ****** ** *** Indian *** ** ****** ***** Ottawa has been ******* **** ******* with Métis communities and **** urban Aboriginal *********** groups *** ****** ***** ***** were not ***** *** under *** Indian *** **** its emphasis ** ****** ******* *** reserve ************* These efforts **** ********** the ******* **** ** ************* band *********** ******* under *** ****** Act *** **** ********* *** ******* ****************** *********** for ********** ****** ** ****** *** simply *** ****** Act ** ****** ********* ********************* ********* *** ** ****** ******** * singular ***** *** the ********** ** status Indian affairs Despite *** of these ******* *** Indian *** ******* * *********** for ********** ******** ** Canada ****

    **********

    *********** ***** ***** *** *** ********* ****** ****** it ** *** ******* ************ of Canadian *********** *** colonialism *** ****** its abolition ****** **** pivotal piece of *********** ** ***** ******** ** ********** **** ********** governments *** *********** feel more appropriately ********* ***** ***** and ********* The modern ******** signed ** ******** districts **** ****** models *** ****** ******* and represent ********* ***** ** the declining **** of *** ****** *** ** *** lives of ****** ******* ** ****** ************** Canadians ********* know very little about **** ********* ********** **** as **** **** **** **** ****** ***** *** power and *********** ********** **** *** ****** *** ************* ********* ** *** ************** status” ** ********** ****** *** *********** – **** as *** ********* from ******** **** *** long been ** ******** ********** ** ************** ********* ******* ****** *********** ** modern ******** ****** the financial relationships ******* ***** ******* and *** ********** of ******* *** ****** Act ******* to be ****** *** ******** of prominence within *** ******** ********* and ************** *****

    Surprisingly

    ****** attention ******** *** ******* ** ****** *** controls ** the ****** ******** ***** ** ****** ************ ****** *** country ** *** ********* *** ********** changes ******** *** ******* ******* – *** a ***** improvement from the ************* ******** ** *** ****** *** ******* ** **** *** *** arrangements **** **** negotiated **** ********** *********** *** ratified ** Aboriginal communities *** **** ********* ******* ** the ****** *** *** ****** the **** **** ** *** ******* ** *** ********** of ****** without ************ with *** ****** ***** ***** **** for *********** controlled and ****** ** *** *********** ***** the terms of ****** ******** *************** ********** *** ***** ******* *** ***** ***** ** ********** ********** has ******* ** ****** *** old *** ********** ** the ****** *** is on *** *** *** The new way ******* ************ ** *** ******* *** Yukon First ******* and ************* settlements *** ** ********** ** ********* ** British Columbia – *** taken over ********* and ************** **** ** ********** *********** will ********* ***** ** *** **** *****

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