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ETHC445 Exam 1. (TCOs 2, 4, 5, 6) The idea that the assisted suicide of terminally ill patients should be allowed simply at the patient's direction
ETHC445 Exam1. (TCOs 2, 4, 5, 6) The idea that the assisted suicide of terminally ill patients should be allowed simply at the patient's direction reflects what type of ethics? (Points : 5) Hobbes' State of NatureRand's ObjectivismAristotle's concept of VirtueThomas Aquinas' concept of conscienceSocrates' concept of excellence 2. (TCOs 1, 2, 7) What is the moral ideal of temperance? (Points : 5) Exercising control over one's own desires and inclinationsKeeping one's temper under controlMinimizing the impact of one's decisionsSeeking the good of others before one's ownOvercoming one's passions 3. (TCOs 1, 2) One of the common errors in Ethics is that of the hasty conclusions. Hasty conclusions consist of what? (Points : 5) Rushed work under pressureComparing unknown cases to known ones to find precedentsEmbracing conclusions before examining cases fullyJudging cases by the source of their originBelief that first impressions are valid until challenged 4. (TCO 2) Prescriptive language is commonly used in ethics for what reason? (Points : 5) To indicate what is prohibited or impossibleTo indicate that one choice is better than othersTo show what actions are legalTo convey requirements and obligationsTo indicate that there are really no choices available 5. (TCOs 7, 8) Ethical Egoism proposes that all decisions should be made to promote what? (Points : 5) Our fiduciary responsibilitiesThe good will of othersOur self-interestsThe welfare of the communityStronger relationships 6. (TCOs 2, 4, 9) Free people are motivated toward forming social structures according to a social contract in order to overcome what problem identified by Thomas Hobbes? (Points : 5) The need to overcome disagreementsA perpetual state of warfareThe establishment of a monarchyTaxation to support the costs of governmentOrganized ways to select leaders 7. (TCOs 3, 6) Agricultural biofuels are not properly a renewable source of energy in the environmental ethics debate. Which of the following also is not a renewable source of energy? (Points : 5) Windmill turbinesHydroelectric powerTidal flow generatorsBiomass waste systemsSolar cells 8. (TCOs 3, 6, 7) The notion that the only thing good without qualification is a good will is attributed to whom? (Points : 5) St. Thomas AquinasSocratesJohn LockeImmanuel KantOliver Cromwell 9. (TCOs 8, 9) Which ethical concept is organized and directed toward following the greatest happiness principle? (Points : 5) Natural ethics and lawJustice and mercyRights and responsibilitiesVirtue-ethics of excellencePrinciple of utility 10. (TCOs 3, 6, 7) Syllogisms in formal deductive logic are called "valid" when: (Points : 5) the correct form of the syllogism style is used.the premise statements are true.the syllogism is first determined to be "sound."the verbs are written in present tense.the conclusion proceeds from the premises. 11. (TCOs 1, 2) When choosing one course of action while working with a dilemma, the other courses of action are lost and become unavailable. This makes ethical choices in dilemma situations particularly what? (Points : 5) IncoherentComplicatedIllogicalPainfulCruel 12. (TCOs 1, 2, 7) What is the role of conscience as Thomas Aquinas sees it? (Points : 5) To teach ethical principlesTo disclose and build religious faithTo enable rational thought about consequencesTo align personal ethics with those of othersTo guide actions through a view of right and wrong 13. (TCOs 2, 8) The rule or principle to be applied in making decisions is an example of which kind of ethical discovery process? (Points : 5) Principle of utilityA posteriori rationalityA priori rationalityEmpirical rationalityScientific method 14. (TCOs 1, 2, 5) The Social Contract theorist whose troubled childhood was most clearly reflected in his theories was who? (Points : 5) Thomas AquinasThomas JeffersonJean-Jacques RousseauThomas HobbesJohn Locke 15. (TCOs 3, 6, 7) Kant's concern that people choose to observe universal laws as their duty is expressed through what actions? (Points : 5) Their habitsTheir maximsTheir desiresTheir lovesTheir loyalties 16. (TCOs 2, 7, 8) Aristotle's Ethics of Virtue have found modern application for business and industry through what practice? (Points : 5) Resolution models applicationsGoals and objectivesCore values of organizationsBusiness modelsProfessional codes of discipline 17. (TCOs 2, 8) Professional codes of conduct serve what function for business and industry? (Points : 5) Allow businesses to avoid training professional staffersEnable transfer of valued employees across state linesEnable contracting of temporary employeesSpecify continuing education needs and requirementsProviding assurance of the professional qualifications of members 18. (TCOs 2, 7) Aristotle's Ethical Doctrine of the Mean measured personal virtues on a scale that included the virtue itself, the excess of it, and the deficiency of it. If the virtue is COURAGE and the deficiency is COWARDICE, what is the excess? (Points : 5) WisdomModerationThere is no excessRecklessnessLove 19. (TCOs 8, 9) In personal or organizational conflict, what benefits accrue to all parties when a leader or consultant employees one of the ethical conflict resolution models of Week 6? (Points : 5) Objectives of what winning the conflict means get refined and better understoodConflict management gets slowed down and settled.Conflict can be handled in a sequential, step-by-step mannerParties can be reconciled without solving the issuesPersonal relationships can be separated from issues 20. (TCOs 1, 2) The Latin term a priori describes the origin of knowledge developed rationally, and the term a posteriori describes knowledge developed through observation and experience. What is an example of ethics is best described as discovered in an a postiori manner? (Points : 5) Social ethicsCare-based ethicsConsequentialist ethicsTheological ethicsOperational ethics 21 The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was created through a congressional enabling act as a governmental agency to act on the concerns voiced by environmental ethicists. Their actions include all of the following except for which one?Subpoena regulation offendersMonitor situations of environmental concernFine offendersSponsor new legislation on environmental issuesconfiscate property of offenders(TCOs 1, 2, 7) 22 What is the moral ideal of prudence? (Points : 5)Taking a traditional approach to problematic situationschoosing behavior judiciously by consulting experienceTaking care to slow down decision makingAvoiding risksResisting impulsiveness23 One of the common errors in Ethics is that of the double standard. Double standard consists of what? (Points : 5)Discriminating in the application of ethical criteria based on our own preferencesSetting aside ethical criteria in special casesTaking steps to avoid condemnation of othersUsing one set of criteria for judging cases concerning ourselves and another for all othersSuspending judgment when concerned that the consequences would be too severe24 Prescriptive language in ethics is often characterized by what common word? (Points : 5)RightProperBestPossibleShould25 Each person ought to do whatever will best promote his or her own interests. (Points : 5)UtilitarianismKant's Categorical ImperativeSocial Contract TheoryEthical EgoismGilligan26 John Locke, as a Social Contract theorist, is said to have been the most influential person who was not actually present at the table when what document was written? (Points : 5)The Articles of ConfederationThe Declaration of IndependenceThe Magna CartaThe ConstitutionThe Treaty of Westphalia27 Animal sentience is demonstrated by all the following except which one? (Points : 5)ConsciousnessAwarenessResponse to external painful stimuliAnimatednessEmotive response28 (TCOs 3, 6, 7) Kant said that the only thing "good without qualification" is what? (Points : 5)The best interests of all concernedActs of mercyThe amount of happiness producedPersonal virtuesA good will29 (TCOs 8, 9) "We ought to do whatever will promote the greatest happiness for the greatest number." This is an example of what? (Points : 5)Ethical EgoismUtilitarianismKant's Categorical ImperativeSocial Contract TheoryGilligan30 (TCOs 3, 6, 7) Syllogisms in formal deductive logic are called "sound" when the syllogism is determined to be "valid" and: (Points : 5)the premises share common terminology.there are three or more premises.the premises are true statements.all of the premises are written in present tense.the premises have been independently cited.31. (TCOs 1, 2) Different from normal problem solving, dilemmas are different in what aspect? (Points : 5)Problems are much more complicatedWhen one choice is chosen, the opportunity for the others is lostProblems are much more urgentProblems are so much more real and less theoreticalProblems usually involve not honoring our own virtues32 (TCOs 1, 2, 7) According to Thomas Aquinas, what ethical capacity do people of every culture naturally possess? (Points : 5)Logical thinkingPersonal virtuesSelf-interestAbility to learn lessonsConscience33. (TCOs 1, 2, 5) The world view of ruthless and unending competition for property and wealth was spelled out in which of these concepts? (Points : 5)Locke's notion of the natural state of manRawls' notion of the veil of ignoranceAristotle's notion of the doctrine of the meanHammurabi's code of lawHobbes' state of nature34 (TCOs 3, 6, 7) Which school of ethics is primarily applied as a practical matter through rights and duties? (Points : 5)ObjectivismNormative ethicsConsequentialist ethicsDeontological ethicsInterdisciplinary ethics35 (TCOs 2, 7, 8) Personal development and discovery through the repetition of good acts and study of virtue characterizes what ethicist? (Points : 5)PlatoAristotleLutherAugustineSocrates36 (TCOs 2, 7) Aristotle's Ethical Doctrine of the Mean measured personal virtues on a scale that included the virtue itself, the excess of it, and the deficiency of it. If the virtue is BEING FRIENDLY, and the excess is BEING INGRATIATING, what is the deficiency?(Points : 5)UnconcernThere is no deficiencyAngerAnnoyingBeing surly37. (TCOs 8, 9) Processes and systems designed to slow down disagreeing behavior and think situations through more deliberately are called (Points : 5)value clarification processes.conflict resolution systems.objectivist tactics.primary schools of ethics.care-based ethics.38. What is the moral ideal of justice? (Points : 5) Acts of mercy beyond what is required Making decisions in order to build friendships Meeting legal requirements Evaluation of situations according to their merits Meeting the terms of the Social Contract39. One of the common errors in Ethics is unwarranted assumptions. Unwarranted assumptions consist of what? (Points : 5) Preconceptions before ethical dilemmas are confronted Failing to read carefully and with attention to detail Taking too much for granted Speculating apart from information Treating case studies carelessly40. Ethics that teaches us what we should do in our own self-interest is taught through which style of ethics? (Points : 5) Rousseaus social constructionism Rands objectivism Aristotles politics Contemporary care-based ethics Platos Ring of Gyges example41. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was created through a congressional enabling act as a governmental agency to act on the concerns voiced by environmental ethicists. Their actions include all of the following except for which one? (Points : 5) Subpoena regulation offenders Monitor situations of environmental concern Fine offenders Sponsor new legislation on environmental issues Confiscate property of offenders42. (TCOs 8, 9) John Stuart Mill's theory of Utilitarianism is the most common form of ethics in use today. It is used so commonly because it belongs to which of the Primary Schools of Ethics? (Points : 5) Care-based Ends-based Economy-based Law-based Efficiency-based43. TCOs 3, 6, 7) Syllogisms in formal deductive logic are called "sound" when the syllogism is determined to be "valid" and: (Points : 5) the premises share common terminology. there are three or more premises. the premises are true statements. all of the premises are written in present tense. the premises have been independently cited. 44. Different from normal problem solving, dilemmas are different in what aspect? (Points : 5) Problems are much more complicated When one choice is chosen, the opportunity for the others is lost Problems are much more urgent Problems are so much more real and less theoretical Problems usually involve not honoring our own virtues45. (TCOs 1, 2, 7) Where did Thomas Aquinas say that conscience originates? (Points : 5) Through the hard work of reasoning Direct gift from God in all cultures through natural law An a priori source By observing the objects and actions of the world An empirical response of guilt for past actions Page 2 - Essays 1. (TCOs 1, 2, 3, 7) In support of TCO #7 and in the Week 7 discussions, you developed and placed into the threaded discussions your personalized ethics statement of what has become important to you in the practice of ethics as you have practiced ethics during the course. Your first task in this question is to briefly present that personalized statement in just a few sentences before continuing with the question. Much of the rest of the exam will involve your working with that personalized statement through brief applications and cases. Use your ethical philosophy to solve the following ethical situation. Explain how your philosophy helped you make your decision. Should citizens have an ethical obligation to serve their country when it is at war? Under what circumstances, if any, is it ethical for a person to refuse to serve? A significant number of people believe war is always wrong, and that no circumstances justify one nation's taking up arms against another. Is this view ethically sound? How about realistically? Please state which side you agree with, and why. Explain and defend your position using your ethical position statement. In answering, be sure to look at both sides of war: that is, a country defending itself against aggression and of a strong country coming to the aid of a weaker country that has been attacked unjustly. Then, explain how your ethical philosophy affected how you answered this problem. (Points : 30) 2. (TCOs 1, 2, 7) Analyze the following ethical situation using YOUR ethical philosophy. Read the situation and then in your answer, explain why this is an ethical situation, what the "issues" are, and how an "ethical" person would resolve them. Explain how YOUR ethical philosophy has helped you read a conclusion about how to resolve or analyze this situation. Employees' worth to their employers may diminish before they are eligible for retirement. In such cases, the employer is faced with the dilemma of choosing between retaining an old and trusted yet unproductive worker for 5 or 10 more years, or firing that worker and jeopardizing his or her retirement benefits. 1. Should an employer have an ethical obligation to keep such unproductive, but loyal employees? What if the employee had been a problem his or her entire career? Are there certain circumstances where your answer to these questions would be different? 2. What is the duty of an unproductive employee to his or her employer? Is there an ethical obligation to retire when productivity begins to wane? If a person is simply "coasting" for his or her last few years, is that person "unethical?" Be sure to explain your answer. (Points : 30) 3. (TCOs 1, 7, 9) How do you feel St. Thomas Aquinas would have solved the above ethical situation differently or the same as you did using your philosophy? Please explain the reasons for the similarities or differences. (Points : 40) 4. (TCOs 1, 2, 4, 9) A first-term junior senator has placed a bill before the Senate that promises to correct tax inequities that affect thousands of workers. However, the bill is being held up in committee. The senior senator who serves as Sub-Committee Chairperson is responsible. The senator, however, has learned of a secret scandal in the Chairperson's personal life. The junior senator visits the Chairperson and tells him that unless the bill is released from committee, he will divulge the scandal to the press. The Chairperson then releases the bill from committee and it is passedand becomes law. Identify and tell what ethical philosophy the senior and junior senators are using, if any. Now, use your ethical philosophy to analyze the situation. Explain how, using your philosophy, you would have solved this situation either the same way as the characters in the situation did, or differently. Why? (Points : 30) 5. (TCOs 5, 6) You work for a grocery store and a new manager is hired to oversee your department. He comes into your department (the butcher shop) and explains to you that for the past 6 months, your department has been losing money for the store because of the waste and spoilage going on from having to discard unsold meat and poultry. He tells you that from now on, he wants you to package ground meat in smaller, more compact packages, with older meat on the bottom of the package (so it is not visible to the customer) and the fresher meat on the top, where it is visible to the customers. In this way, you can move more of the older meat and still receive the top dollar for it. As he leaves the department where you were having the discussion, he turns and says, "And by the way, one more month of losses like we had last month from this department, and you can kiss your job goodbye." Will you repackage the meat in the way he requested? Why or why not? Explain what ethical analysis you used to come to this conclusion. (Points : 30) 6. (TCOs 6, 8) Analyze your answer above using the Front Page of the Newspaper ethical dilemma resolution model. Show your steps. (Points : 40)