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ETHC445 Exam1. (TCOs 2, 4, 5, 6) The idea that the assisted suicide of terminally ill patients should be allowed simply at the patient's direction
care-based ethics.38. What is the moral ideal of justice? (Points : 5) Acts of mercy beyond what is required Making decisions in order to build friendships Meeting legal requirements Evaluation of situations according to their merits Meeting the terms of the Social Contract39. One of the common errors in Ethics is unwarranted assumptions. Unwarranted assumptions consist of what? (Points : 5) Preconceptions before ethical dilemmas are confronted Failing to read carefully and with attention to detail Taking too much for granted Speculating apart from information Treating case studies carelessly40. Ethics that teaches us what we should do in our own self-interest is taught through which style of ethics? (Points : 5) Rousseaus social constructionism Rands objectivism Aristotles politics Contemporary care-based ethics Platos Ring of Gyges example41. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was created through a congressional enabling act as a governmental agency to act on the concerns voiced by environmental ethicists. Their actions include all of the following except for which one? (Points : 5) Subpoena regulation offenders Monitor situations of environmental concern Fine offenders Sponsor new legislation on environmental issues Confiscate property of offenders42. (TCOs 8, 9) John Stuart Mill's theory of Utilitarianism is the most common form of ethics in use today. It is used so commonly because it belongs to which of the Primary Schools of Ethics? (Points : 5) Care-based Ends-based Economy-based Law-based Efficiency-based43. TCOs 3, 6, 7) Syllogisms in formal deductive logic are called "sound" when the syllogism is determined to be "valid" and: (Points : 5) the premises share common terminology. there are three or more premises. the premises are true statements. all of the premises are written in present tense. the premises have been independently cited. 44. Different from normal problem solving, dilemmas are different in what aspect? (Points : 5) Problems are much more complicated When one choice is chosen, the opportunity for the others is lost Problems are much more urgent Problems are so much more real and less theoretical Problems usually involve not honoring our own virtues45. (TCOs 1, 2, 7) Where did Thomas Aquinas say that conscience originates? (Points : 5) Through the hard work of reasoning Direct gift from God in all cultures through natural law An a priori source By observing the objects and actions of the world An empirical response of guilt for past actions Page 2 - Essays 1. (TCOs 1, 2, 3, 7) In support of TCO #7 and in the Week 7 discussions, you developed and placed into the threaded discussions your personalized ethics statement of what has become important to you in the practice of ethics as you have practiced ethics during the course. Your first task in this question is to briefly present that personalized statement in just a few sentences before continuing with the question. Much of the rest of the exam will involve your working with that personalized statement through brief applications and cases. Use your ethical philosophy to solve the following ethical situation. Explain how your philosophy helped you make your decision. Should citizens have an ethical obligation to serve their country when it is at war? Under what circumstances, if any, is it ethical for a person to refuse to serve? A significant number of people believe war is always wrong, and that no circumstances justify one nation's taking up arms against another. Is this view ethically sound? How about realistically? Please state which side you agree with, and why. Explain and defend your position using your ethical position statement. In answering, be sure to look at both sides of war: that is, a country defending itself against aggression and of a strong country coming to the aid of a weaker country that has been attacked unjustly. Then, explain how your ethical philosophy affected how you answered this problem. (Points : 30) 2. (TCOs 1, 2, 7) Analyze the following ethical situation using YOUR ethical philosophy. Read the situation and then in your answer, explain why this is an ethical situation, what the "issues" are, and how an "ethical" person would resolve them. Explain how YOUR ethical philosophy has helped you read a conclusion about how to resolve or analyze this situation. Employees' worth to their employers may diminish before they are eligible for retirement. In such cases, the employer is faced with the dilemma of choosing between retaining an old and trusted yet unproductive worker for 5 or 10 more years, or firing that worker and jeopardizing his or her retirement benefits. 1. Should an employer have an ethical obligation to keep such unproductive, but loyal employees? What if the employee had been a problem his or her entire career? Are there certain circumstances where your answer to these questions would be different? 2. What is the duty of an unproductive employee to his or her employer? Is there an ethical obligation to retire when productivity begins to wane? If a person is simply "coasting" for his or her last few years, is that person "unethical?" Be sure to explain your answer. (Points : 30) 3. (TCOs 1, 7, 9) How do you feel St. Thomas Aquinas would have solved the above ethical situation differently or the same as you did using your philosophy? Please explain the reasons for the similarities or differences. (Points : 40) 4. (TCOs 1, 2, 4, 9) A first-term junior senator has placed a bill before the Senate that promises to correct tax inequities that affect thousands of workers. However, the bill is being held up in committee. The senior senator who serves as Sub-Committee Chairperson is responsible. The senator, however, has learned of a secret scandal in the Chairperson's personal life. The junior senator visits the Chairperson and tells him that unless the bill is released from committee, he will divulge the scandal to the press. The Chairperson then releases the bill from committee and it is passedand becomes law. Identify and tell what ethical philosophy the senior and junior senators are using, if any. Now, use your ethical philosophy to analyze the situation. Explain how, using your philosophy, you would have solved this situation either the same way as the characters in the situation did, or differently. Why? (Points : 30) 5. (TCOs 5, 6) You work for a grocery store and a new manager is hired to oversee your department. He comes into your department (the butcher shop) and explains to you that for the past 6 months, your department has been losing money for the store because of the waste and spoilage going on from having to discard unsold meat and poultry. He tells you that from now on, he wants you to package ground meat in smaller, more compact packages, with older meat on the bottom of the package (so it is not visible to the customer) and the fresher meat on the top, where it is visible to the customers. In this way, you can move more of the older meat and still receive the top dollar for it. As he leaves the department where you were having the discussion, he turns and says, "And by the way, one more month of losses like we had last month from this department, and you can kiss your job goodbye." Will you repackage the meat in the way he requested? Why or why not? Explain what ethical analysis you used to come to this conclusion. (Points : 30) 6. (TCOs 6, 8) Analyze your answer above using the Front Page of the Newspaper ethical dilemma resolution model. Show your steps. (Points : 40)