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For each case, tell me 1) what the method of justification is and 2) how it might be criticized. As for 1), the method of justification is the...

For each case, tell me 1) what the method of justification is and 2) how it might be criticized. 

As for 1), the method of justification is the "because" part of the claim. If you like, for each passage you can just say in general what that method is--the most likely candidates are trust in tradition or authority, reliance on sense-perception, or appeals to memory.   

In your criticisms (2), don't just say that you can't trust the method of justification or that it might be wrong (for example, if seeing something is the method of justification, don't just say "your eyes might deceive you"). Instead try to come up with a reason for doubting its reliability or an example that illustrates how the specific claim being examined might still turn out wrong despite the method used. (For example, if the method of justification is vision, discuss a couple of cases where people see things but what they see isn't real.)


1- "I know that all war is immoral and that one should refuse to participate, because my conscience tells me so."

2- "I know it is a good movie, because it was voted best movie of the year by the L.A. film critics society."

3-"Of course it is okay to eat meat; people in our culture have been eating meat since the beginning of recorded time."

4-"I know that Moses turned a staff to a snake, because I read it in the Bible."

5-"I know Prophet Dan turned his staff to a serpent, because I saw him do it." (Assume the speaker--the eye-witness in this case--is honest.)

6-"I know we took a family vacation to the Grand Canyon when we were young; I remember being there with Mom and Dad, and you and I were two or three years old."

7-"I know the sun is primarily made of hydrogen; that's what it says in all the reference books."

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