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Hello,i have two assighment that should to answer perfectly 1- please rephrase all these answers by the same meaning 1. Definitely, the human and physical geography of the Middle and South America r


i have two assighment that should to answer perfectly 

1- please rephrase all these answers by the same meaning 

1. Definitely, the human and physical geography of the Middle and South America region would have been different if the European colonists would have visited with a different frame of mind. Regarding the human geography, there would be more indigenous people in this region. Due to the conquest minded Europeans, many of the indigenous populations were wiped out including those in Costa Rica and Peru. Further, the human geography would be different because there would be equality among the indigenous and foreign people. The entry of Europeans led to the creation of class as the Europeans took up the larger part of the wealth living the indigenous people to live in poverty. Lastly, the physical geography would be different in terms of less environmental degradation brought about by Europeans.

2. The diverse landforms in Middle and South America have been shaped by tectonic processes. For instance, the Central Andes comprises of an expansive collection of mountain ranges and plateaus making up for up to seventy percent of the world’s tropical glaziers. The region also boasts of the pampas, found in Argentina and Uruguay, which is an expansive grasslands comprised of fertile soils, which once supported the agricultural economy of the region. Further, the regions also has the largest tropical forests on the universe called the Amazon forest. The regions also has the large Atacama desert; and the Brazilian and Guiana Highlands.

3. The first impressive location is Costa Rica. This is because the country has made great strides in developing human capital in terms of developing schools, healthcare, infrastructure and other social services. Further, the country has also been on the forefront of environmental conservation by encouraging ecotourism and creating wetland parks. On the issue of equality,the impressive location was Ecuador. The electorate wanted to lessen inequalities in Ecuador, so they elected Rafael Correa, a president who imposed high taxes for the rich and encouraged a substantial government expenditure directed at lessening social problems.

4. The oil resources in Venezuela could have benefited the entire nation were it not for colonization. Up to the 1990s, sixty-three percent of the wealth of the nation was held by people of the European decent leaving the indigenous people in poverty, with low income and inadequate education, transportation and healthcare infrastructures. This has been reflected in the modern Venezuela, as only a few people are wealthy while the rest live in shantytowns in abject poverty with lack of resources such as clean drinking water, education, transport and sanitation. Another notable colonization effects was Bolivia whose European colonizers made fortunes at the expense of the indigenous Mestizos who lived in poverty and worked on large haciendas. This led to the constant fights for social change and ended up in violence. In an attempt to turn things around, there was massive political participation leading to lection of Eva Morales, a radial indigenous leader who fought for their rights including de-privatization of water. The people also complained because the colonists had turned their coca plant into producing cocaine and hence adversely affected their farming.

5. There are various patterns of migration in Middle and South America. First, there is the intraregional migration, where people moved from one location to the other in the region. The most notable movement is that from the Andes regions to the Southern Cone. People are moving from, for instance Paraguay to inhabit Argentina and Brazil. This is mainly due to search for economic and employment opportunities. The effect of this is overpopulation and congestion in urban areas such as Rio de Janeiro having shanties. Further, migration from rural areas to urban areas by farmworkers lead to congestion in the cities; exemplified by Brazil. The other movement is from Middle and South America to North America in countries such as the United States and Canada in search of employment. This has caused insecurity of the locals as they are worried that the foreigners will grab their economic opportunities and hence a tough foreign migration policy.

6. First, the main factors that can increase political freedoms is the alleviation of poverty and economic inequality. People who have limited or low economic capacity have a limited political bargaining power. The second factor is increase in political parties. The few political parties are not conducive for democratic and political freedom as only a few people can challenge the status quo. Thirdly, the region needs to consider handling corruption and strengthening its law enforcement systems, as they are a real menace that is dragging the region behind.

7. The Amazon Basin and its resources is a contested space. This is because it is the largest tropical forest in the world, which provides a huge percentage of the earth’s fresh water. Further, the inner parts of the forest provides a home to the intact Native Americans. However, the forest is currently under threat of destruction, as deforestation is quickly taking place. The problem is whether the resources should be shared, explored or left intact for the local people. Overall, the region is undergoing overfishing, development of hydroelectric projects and oil spills. The forest is also being destroyed to create room for agriculture.

8. The existence of free trade blocs might be a great disadvantage for low-paid workers. These open markets could create a competitive environment, denying local workers bargaining power as companies have options to outsource labor from other nations. In fact, instead of leading to upward mobility, it can lead to job loss as employers go in search of personnel that can work for low minimum wage. Further, employees can easily be unemployed when foreign companies drive out their employers from the market.

9. I would say European colonization never helped in the development and modernization of Middle and South America. Europeans came to the region for selfish reasons, and continue to hold high stakes in both political and economic activities in the region. Instead of steering development, they left indigenous people in poverty and earning low wages. Further, they have minimized the rate at which the region has acquired amenities such as education, infrastructure, transportation and healthcare. Additionally, the region lacks behind in political modernity as the countries are still fighting for political freedom hence leading to many civil unrests and coup de tats. With a region of high potential and natural resources such as oil, countries like Venezuela would not be struggling to provide a life for their people.

Lecture summary

A region is a larger area made up of numerous small places, which share a number of social and cultural attributes. These areas contained in a larger region are diverse but share a regional topography and similar economic systems. Many regions are defined particularly around particular and distinctive culture or language. They influence the individual and groups who live there and as such adaptations. Certain geographies, owing to their special qualities promote can promote more advancement civilizations over time as noted by Jared Diamond. For instance, regions near the equator have lower standard of living than north of equator. In the spirit of geographical determinism, Diamond argues that the parts of the world that were able to immerse significant populations than other became civilized than others. Further, that geography explains human diversity. However, other consider this argument as too ambitious and fixed since human adaptation is a creative affair and people can alter their conditions; for instance, recent developments in human transforming adverse regions to make them habitable. Humans can also alter the environment through processes such as global warming.



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