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Hi, need to submit a 2000 words paper on the topic Hepatic Granulomas.  .In line with this matter, Alcantara-Payawal et al. (1997) stated that as much as 50 to 80% of patients who are drying f
Hi, need to submit a 2000 words paper on the topic Hepatic Granulomas.  .In line with this matter, Alcantara-Payawal et al. (1997) stated that as much as 50 to 80% of patients who are drying from tuberculosis were observed to have clinical evidence of hepatic granuloma. (Alcantara-Payawal et al., 1997)
For this study, the researcher will discuss the basic pathophysiology on hepatic granulomas including its etiology, pathogenesis, pathology, diagnosis, treatment, clinical features, imaging studies and the necessary clinical intervention on the said disease.
A granuloma is a chronic inflammation of the macrophages, epitheloid cells as well as the giant multinucleated cells. (Williams & Williams, 1983) Normally, the formation of a granuloma occurs when there is a coordinated interaction between the monocytes and macrophages, lymphocytes, epithelioid cells, eosinophils, neutrophils, and fibroblasts. (Oloris et al., 2007)
As a clinical sign or a manifestation of infection, presence of toxic substances, allergic reaction, reaction of the autoimmune system, including the presence of neoplastic diseases (Williams & Williams, 1983), the formation and development of hepatic granulomas is normally induced by the presence of a foreign body tissue such as the schistosome eggs (Van de Vijver et al., 2006. Loeffler et al., 2002) or Schistosoma mansoni eggs (Oloris et al., 2007) within the presinusoidal capillaries. These eggs normally secrete antigens that could activate the growth of the endothelial cells. It is the CD4+T cells responding to the presence of the egg antigens that causes the granuloma formation to start to develop around the tissue-trapped eggs. (Van de Vijver et al., 2006. Mwinzi et al., 2004)
Even though the real cause of granuloma formation remains unclear, it is believed that the lesions that occur protect the poorly soluble exogenous and/or endogenous irritants. (Hepatitis-Central, 2008) In other words, the body’s immunologic mechanisms convert the mononuclear phagocytic cells into epithelioid cells to form the granulomas.