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Hi, need to submit a 2250 words essay on the topic Managing across Cultures.Download file to see previous pages... There are significant differences which are caused by cultural outlook when it comes
Hi, need to submit a 2250 words essay on the topic Managing across Cultures.Download file to see previous pages...
There are significant differences which are caused by cultural outlook when it comes to working in an organization. Values in the work place are significantly affected by culture. . A study of US multinational corporations found out that poor intercultural management skills still constitute a major management problem. (Deresky) Theories and Models of culture Different researchers and sociologists have proposed different theories about cultural dimensions. Notable amongst these are the Geert Hofstede's theory of cultural dimensions and the 7d model developed by Fons Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner. There is a growing body of research that focuses on how cultures vary. This research ranges from the pioneering efforts of Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck (1961) to the widely referenced approach of Hofstede (1980), to the recent work of Hampden-Turner and Trompenaar (1993). The Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck (Kluckhohn, 1961) model has identified six basic dimensions which cover the cultural orientation in societies. These include people's view of nature, humanity and interpersonal relationships. These also include how people view of activity and achievement. time and space. Hofstede (Hofstede G. , 1980) cultural dimensions provide a more comprehensive analysis of cultural dimensions amongst different nations and countries. He focused on 160000 managers and employers of IBM in 60 different countries and found four dimensions of cultural differences which set these countries apart from each other. These dimensions are individualism vs. collectivism, power distance, uncertainty avoidance, and masculinity vs. femininity and form the basis for work related attitudes. The most recent cultural model is that of Hampden-Turner and Trompenaar released in 1993. 15000 international managers were administered questionnaires and value differences of practitioners of capitalism were identified. These values include: universalism vs. particularism, analyzing vs. integrating, individualism vs. communitarianism, inner-directed vs. outer-directed orientation, time as sequence vs. time as synchronization, achieved status vs. ascribed status, and equality vs. hierarchy. Limitations of the Hofstede model Though these models are very useful in analyzing the culture of different countries but they have certain limitations. First and the foremost the fact that the averages of that certain country do not relate to the individuals of that country and extreme variations may be possible. Thus the Hofstede model can be used as a guide to understand different cultures but is not an absolute dictation. Secondly, the data collected by all these sociologists was collected by different questionnaires and therefore limitations could also be applied to the data that was collected. And lastly since it has been considerable amount of time since that research, it is very much possible that the country's culture has changed either by external or internal influences. (Geert Hofstede cultural dimensions) Analysis of different countries and their cross cultural differences affecting work. The two different cultures selected to analyze are the American and the Mexican culture and the problems which may arise as a result of the differences in cultural values which effect work value and habits.