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How could IR spectroscopy be used to distinguish between benzene and cyclohexene?
Cyclohexene has strong aliphatic C-H stretching absorptions at 3000-2850 cm⁻¹. Benzene does not.
The characteristic IR absorptions of benzene are at
3100-3000 cm⁻¹: =C-H stretch ~1950 cm⁻¹: C=C stretch ~1800 cm⁻¹: C=C stretch 1500-1400 cm⁻¹: =C-H in-plane bending 900-650 cm⁻¹: =C-H out-of plane (oop) bending
The characteristic IR absorptions of cyclohexene are
3100-3000 cm⁻¹: =C-H stretch 3000-2850 cm⁻¹: C-H stretch ~1650 cm⁻¹: C=C stretch ~1450 cm⁻¹: CH₂ bend (scissoring) 1000-650 cm⁻¹: =C-H bend
The big difference is that cyclohexene has strong aliphatic C-H stretching peaks at 3000-2850 cm⁻¹.