1. In Kant Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals, the maxim of an act is: (Points 
the policy or principle that you would be following if you did it.
the expected overall utility resulting from the action.
the moral rule that an act either respects or violates.
all of the above.
Question 2.2. If Glaukon is correct, then justice (Points : 1)
is valuable in its own right.
is always more beneficial than injustice
has value only relative to its usefulness to the individual
has value only relative particular cultures
Question 3.3. Aristotle describes each virtue as: (Points 
a maximum
a minimum
a relative mean
an absolute mean
Question 4.4. What is palliative care? (Points )
Treatments that relieve suffering for people in life threatening situations that allow them to live their lives to the fullest
Treatments that are only provided in Canada
Treatments that heal people when they face life-threatening illnesses
Treatments that involve painful processes that help to kill cancer and other diseases
Question 5.5. In Held’s article, a thinker named Annette Baier claims that the history of Western ethical thought does not take into account feminine aspects because (Points : 1)
The great moral theorists were men who had little intimate interaction with women
The great moral theorists were often loving husbands
The great moral theorists hated women
The great moral theorists
Question 6.6. Rachels claims that: (Points : 1)
there is no moral difference between active and passive euthanasia, considered in themselves
there is always a moral difference between the consequences of active and passive euthanasia
both a and b
neither a nor b
Question 7.7. In Aristotle’s view, the virtues are: (Points : 1)
acquired through habit
acquired through philosophical reflection
a gift from the gods
something we are either born with or not
Question 8.8. If Midgley is correct, moral scepticism (Points : 1)
Leads to inaction
Leads to crude opinions
Leads to immorality
Rejects all criticism
Question 9.9. What does Peter Singer say about the history of liberation movements?  (Points : 1)
They tend to become narrower in scope … zeroing in on the exact class that deserves moral consideration
They tend to become wider in scope … with people learning to apply moral principles to groups previously not considered
They tend to become more discriminatory … giving fewer and fewer rights to the less privileged. 
They tend to discover that the original concepts in the past were superior and it is a mistake to veer from traditional wisdom
Question 10.10. According to Kant, suicide is: (Points :)
Moral if and only if one’s life becomes too burdensome
Moral if and only if it relieves other people’s burdens
Immoral because it involves treating one’s autonomous will merely as a means to the relief of suffering
Immoral because it condemns one to eternal damnation
Question 11.11. According to the videos, in which is it legal to commit assisted suicide? (Points : 1)
Question 12.12. The Ring of Gyges gave the shepherd who found it (Points 
Question 13.13. According to Nagel, which of the following may be permitted by absolutism, at least in some circumstances? (Points : 1)
Intentionally killing an innocent person
Doing something that brings about an innocent person's death
Dropping a nuclear bomb on an enemy city
Torturing an innocent person
Question 14.14. According to Glaukon, justice is based on (Points : 1)
Mutually advantageous agreements among people
The laws of God
Natural goodwill among people
The will of the powerful
Question 15.15. A false promise, according to Kant, is: (Points : 1)
something that I could never will to be universal law
something that I could will to be universal law only when it benefits the majority
something that I could will to be universal law only when it benefits me
something that I could will to be universal law only when it prevents a greater
Question 16.16. In the video, “Drones Are Ethical and Effective,” Kenneth Anderson argues that the use of drones is ethical because (Points : 1)
it provides a greater separation between the target and operator
it allows us to maintain a list of high value targets
it is more precise than other forms of weaponry
none of the above
Question 17.17. According to Kant, the moral worth of an action: (Points : 1)
lies in its conformity to the moral law
lies in the value of the expected result
lies in its conformity to God’s commands
lies in its usefulness to society
Question 18.18. According to Rachels, active euthanasia is currently: (Points : 1)
forbidden by law, and conventionally considered immoral
forbidden by law, but conventionally considered permissible
permitted by law, but conventionally considered immoral
permitted by law, and conventionally considered permissible.
Question 19.19. Midgely concludes that (Points : 1)
If we accept a value in another culture, we can still reject that value in our culture
If we accept a value in another culture, we must accept that value in our culture
If we reject a value in another culture, we must reject that value in our culture
B and C
Question 20.20. Robinson suggests that the more closely one associates with one’s identity with a certain group, the more one will (Points : 1)
Associate one’s honor with defying the honor of the group
Associate one’s honor with that of the group
Associate one’s honor with that of the enemy group
Associate one’s honor with the honor of prudence
None of the above
Question 21.21. When faced with the complaint that utilitarianism is a doctrine worthy of pigs, Mill responds that pleasures differ in: (Points : 1)
Question 22.22. Which answer best describes Noddings’s statements about how mothers frequently to feel about losing their children in war? (Points : 1)
Mothers rest assured that the deaths of their children was fully justified by the good they did in the war
Mothers often allow their desire to demonstrate patriotism to override their natural opposition to war and the death of their children
Mothers universally oppose war and the death of children that it inevitably brings
Mothers are generally more enthusiastic for war than anyone else because they know it will make the world safer for future generations
Question 23.23. Rachels argues that the conventional doctrine: (Points : 1)
is self-evidently correct
is not what most people believe, but can be supported by strong arguments
leads to decisions concerning life and death made on morally irrelevant grounds
leads to patients being euthanized against their will
Question 24.24. According to Nagel, to which of the following groups of people is hostility most appropriately aimed? (Points : 1)
Question 25.25.  Midgley analyzes the position that each society is a separate culture with its own values. This position is known as (Points 
Moral relativism
Moral isolationism
Moral structuralism
Question 26.26. Midgley thinks that although we can understand or appreciate other societies, (Points : 1)
We should never judge the values of other societies
We must always respect the values of other societies
We have the right to judge other societies
We cannot understand them well enough to judge them.
Question 27.27. According to the video “Religion, War, and Violence,” Just War Theory asserts that military intervention (Points : 1)
can be seen as an act of altruism
must always have an altruistic component
must be primarily an act of altruism
must never have an altruistic component
Question 28.28. Reason is a faculty that we have that: (Points : 1)
is only good if it succeeds in satisfying our desires
is the driving principle of a good will
is the fundamental ground of human dignity
both B and C
Question 29.29. Robinson argues that integrity should be regarded as: (Points : 1)
An absolute value in all military activities
An absolute value in the honor group
An absolute value only on the battlefield
An absolute value only for noncombatants
None of the above
Question 30.30. According to the video “Religion, War, and Violence,” proponents of Just War Theory agree that without the restraints of Just War Theory (Points : 1)
the violence and aggression of war would be worse
humanitarian intervention would be more successful
prisoners and noncombatants would have greater equality
none of the above
Question 31.31. Hill claims that a fruitful way to think about the badness of destroying the environment is: (Points : 1)
To think about what kind of human would choose to destroy the earth
To appeal to theories about God and care for the earth
To examine people’s intuitions about whether it is right to harm the environment
To examine the rights that belong to the environment and act on the basis of those rights
Question 32.32. Which of the following does not happen to pigs on today’s factory farms in the “Meet Your Meat” video? (Points : 1)
They are raised in extreme confinement so dense that they can’t turn around
They are castrated and have tails chopped without pain killers
They are slaughtered quickly and painlessly
Many are quite conscious while being slaughtered
Question 33.33. In the Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals we find that to act on ‘duty’ is (Points : 1)
to act from a self-seeking purpose
to act because you want to
to act out of respect for law
to act out of the fear of God
Question 34.34. According to Caroline Heldman, which of the following is a question that applies to her sexual object test? (Points : 1)
Does the image show people having sex?
Does the image show a person as something that can be bought or sold?
Does the image display a full image of a woman?
Does the image display violence against people in the image?
Question 35.35. According to Gilligan, stages five and six of Kohlberg’s analysis of moral development involve (Points : 1)
an egocentric understanding of fairness
shared conventions of societal agreement
a logic of equality and reciprocity
a disposition of emotional affectivity
Question 36.36. The conventional doctrine is endorsed by: (Points : 1)
the American Medical Association
both a and b
neither a nor b
Question 37.37. Kass argues that there is an important difference between withdrawing treatment and active, direct mercy killing, and this difference lies in the (Points : 1)
primary intention of the doctor
ultimate outcome of the actions
Constitution of the United States
sympathy that we feel for the patient’s suffering.
Question 38.38. James Rachels points out that when passive euthanasia is employed on infants, they typically die of: (Points : 1)
dehydration and infection
Question 39.39. Passive euthanasia is: (Points : 1)
the intentional termination of one’s life by another person, to relieve pain and suffering.
ceasing to use “extraordinary means” to prolong someone’s life
intentionally causing a patient’s death, against the patient’s wishes
the refusal to treat a patient to avoid incurring unnecessary costs
Question 40.40. In what way would Hill’s notion of “self-acceptance” correspond to Aristotle’s conception of eudaimonia? (Points : 1)
They both are inherently selfish and contrary to virtue
They both require the virtues of arrogance and pride
Neither has anything to do with ethics
They both involve acknowledging that we are the sorts of creatures we are.
Question 41.41. Hill would claim that a lack of aesthetic perception (Points : 1)
might indicate an inability to appreciate the true value of things in general
might indicate that the person simply has a different set of subjective tastes
might indicate that one lacks a precise philosophical account of the beautiful
might indicate an inability to express proper self-deception.
Question 42.42. Michael Walzer argues that there is a radical distinction between war and civil life because  (Points : 1)
war is an intensely collective and collectivizing experience
the circumstances of war are intensely coercive in ways not found elsewhere in society
war is a world of pervasive uncertainty
all of the above
Question 43.43. In the video, “Drones are Ethical and Effective,” Kenneth Anderson states that drones are different from other weapon systems because (Points : 1)
they provide a longer loiter time
they involve remote operation
they eliminate civilian casualties
none of the above
Question 44.44. According to the scene from The Bridge on the River Kwai, what is the ultimate reason Colonel Nicholson (Alec Guinness) insists that the soldiers work hard to build the best bridge possible: (Points : 1)
Because even in captivity, they know that God is watching them
So that the British forces will be able to fight the Japanese more effectively
Because the better the bridge, the more benefit they will receive and less punishment they will endure from their captors
Because it is an expression of the strength and dignity of a soldier even in captivity
Question 45.45. Gilligan claims that females tend to see relationships as these (Points : 1)
Question 46.46. Thomas Nagel argues that all rules of engagement should be governed by the utilitarian principle that (Points : 1)
any means can be justified if it leads to a worthy end
the greatest good can justify targeting noncombatants
we are always justified in attacking the tyranny of the majority
none of the above
Question 47.47. In Gilligan’s example, the child named Amy focuses on this aspect of the Heinz dilemma (Points : 1)
the logical nature of the problem
a utilitarian calculus that weighs the options
Kohlberg’s theory of moral development
the relationships involved in the dilemma
Question 48.48. Leon Kass argues that the primary responsibility of physicians is to: (Points : 1)
respect the autonomy of the patient.
make decisions on the basis of compassion and good intention
benefit sick by the activity of healing
preserve a patient’s life by every means possible
Question 49.49. Glaukon seems to think that people are (Points : 1)
Naturally benevolent
Naturally pious
Naturally just
Naturally egocentric
Question 50.50. According to Rachels, many people accept the conventional doctrine because they believe: (Points : 1)
killing is intrinsically worse than letting die
there is no intrinsic moral difference between killing and letting die
letting die is morally worse than killing
it is never permissible either to let someone die or to kill them


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    the policy or ********* that *** ***** be ********* if *** did it
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    *** ***** **** **** an *** ****** ******** or violates
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    ******** ** ** Glaukon is ******* **** ******* (Points * ***
    is ******** in its *** ******
    ** always **** beneficial than **********
    has value **** ******** ** *** ********** ** *** ***********
    has value only relative ********** *********...
    Attached: phi_208_final.docx


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