philosophy

  1. Logic is the study of reason and arguments.
A. True
B. False
2. Philosophy studies life’s most basic questions.
A. True
B. False
3. Philosophical questions are primarily subjective in nature.
A. True
B. False
4. The value of studying philosophy is that it develops your analytical abilities and your
capacity for abstract thought.
A. True
B. False
5. The word philosophy derives from two ancient Greek words: philia, which means love,
and sophia, which means wisdom.
A. True
B. False
6. Philosophical questions are conceptual in nature; __________ deal in probability and
plausibility rather than absolute truth and falsehood.
A. Philosophical uncertainties
B. Philosophical answers
C. Philosophical doubts
D. Philosophical statements
7. A major philosophical concept, ________________, deals with basic human character-
istics and similar traits in other beings like chimpanzees and dolphins.
A. Personhood
B. Selfhood
C. Self-being
D. Primitive self
Unit 1 Examination
45
Introduction to Philosophy
8. A(n) ________ fallacy involves an argument’s subject matter.
A. Formal
B. Informal
C. Truth
D. False
9. The two parts of an argument are _____.
A. Premises and conclusion
B. Fact and conclusion
C. Premises and falsehoods
D. Facts and truths
10. Another word for the facts, evidence, theories, or ideas that allegedly lead to an argu-
ment’s claim is _____.
A. Premises
B. Conclusions
C. Formal fallacy
D. Informal fallacy
11. If it’s sunny, Jennifer goes surfing. Jennifer went surfing today. Therefore, it must
have been sunny. This is an excellent illustration of affirming the consequent, a for-
mal fallacy.
A. True
B. False
12. “A square has four sides” is a necessary and sufficient condition for defining a
square.
A. True
B. False
13. The potions riddle in “Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone” is an excellent example
of logical thinking.
A. True
B. False
Unit 1 Examination
46
Introduction to Philosophy
14. If someone is a student at Hogwart’s, then he or she is studying witchcraft and wiz-
ardry. Neville Longbottom is a student at Hogwart’s. Therefore, Neville Longbottom is
studying witchcraft and wizardry. This is an excellent example of Modus Ponens, or
the Asserting Rule.
A. True
B. False
15. Analytical thinking is the philosophical application of psychoanalysis.
A. True
B. False
16. Crossing the finish line first in a race in which you competed fairly and without cheat-
ing is a necessary and sufficient condition for you to be the winner.
A. True
B. False
17. The idea that there is one special person somewhere in the world that is your destiny
to meet and fall in love with is an example of ______.
A. Fatalism
B. Determinism
C. Free will
D. Pragmatism
18. A theory that claims that all human behavior is the result of scientifically identifiable
natural forces is an example of _____.
A. Fatalism
B. Determinism
C. Free will
D. Pragmatism
19. B.F. Skinner believes that human freedom is impossible.
A. True
B. False
Unit 1 Examination
47
Introduction to Philosophy
20. Freudianism claims that the human personality has neither conscious nor uncon-
scious dimensions.
A. True
B. False
21. A “Freudian slip” is an example of how the unconscious can determine what we say.
A. True
B. False
22. Sartre accepts the idea that _______________, that is, the theory that our choices
determine our nature.
A. Existence precedes essence
B. Essence precedes existence
C. Free will
D. Determinism
23. The theory of free will implies about responsibility that because our actions result
from our own choices, we are fully responsible for them.
A. True
B. False
24. Aristotle agrees with the following statement: The more we understand people, the more we know how little responsibility they have for their actions.
A. True
B. False
25. According to Ellis, irrational beliefs prove that determinism is correct.
A. True
B. False

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