philosophy

1. Immanuel Kant revised Bentham’s ideas by arguing for the importance of differences

in the type, kind, or quality of pleasures and pains that follow from actions.

A. True

B. False

2. The most basic concept of Kant’s ethics is truth.

A. True

B. False

3. Kant calls his basic moral rule the categorical imperative.

A. True

B. False

4. The ultimate drawback to a teleological approach to ethics is that it allows for the

idea that “the ends justify the means.”

A. True

B. False

5. In a religious approach to ethics, faith and the authority of sacred texts have the final

word.

A. True

B. False

6. If an action is legal, it is also morally right.

A. True

B. False

7. Jeremy Bentham writes, “Nature has placed mankind under the governance of two

sovereign masters, pain and pleasure. It is for them alone to point out what we ought

to do.”

A. True

B. False

Unit 2 Examination

85

Introduction to Philosophy

8. As Bentham and Mill are classic representatives of act-oriented ethics, so Immanuel

Kant created the model for results-oriented ethics.

A. True

B. False

9. Kant argues that a morally good action must have intrinsic worth.

A. True

B. False

10. Plato thinks that we are made up of three parts, physical, ________, and intellectual.

A. Spirited

B. Emotional

C. Truthful

D. Consciousnesses

11. Consider the case of a woman who is robbed and beaten. The robber escapes punish-

ment. Socrates would say__________ has been most hurt by this crime.

A. The woman

B. The robber

12. Socrates illustrates his ideas about the ethical life and the unethical life with the im-

age of two wine jars.

A. True

B. False

13. In the Platonic dialogue entitled the Gorgias, the character Callicles argues that best

life is one of the uncontrolled and totally self-interested pursuit of pleasure.

A. True

B. False

14. Plato believes that in the unhealthy soul there is an inappropriate balance among the

three parts.

A. True

B. False

Unit 2 Examination

86

Introduction to Philosophy

15. Socrates thinks that wrongdoing “is in every way harmful and shameful to the wrong-

doer.”

A. True

B. False

16. Socrates thinks that unethical actions have no effect on our ability to act virtuously.

A. True

B. False

17. When Socrates says that, “the unexamined life is not worth living,” he is recommend-

ing one way to avoid the harm that can come from acting unethically.

A. True

B. False

18. Socrates probably sees the non-cognitive effects of vice as involving loss of the mind’s

ability to argue forcefully for the value of the ethical life.

A. True

B. False

19. The notion of a social contract argues that the citizens of a society freely enter into an

agreement to abide by that society’s laws and therefore are obligated to do so.

A. True

B. False

20. The first working democracy in the world was in the ancient Greek city of___________.

A. Athens

B. Santorini

C. Rhodes

D. Ios

21. John Locke’s idea of formal consent, claims that an informal and unspoken agree-

ment is sufficient to constitute being bound by the terms of a particular social con-

tract.

A. True

B. False

Unit 2 Examination

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Introduction to Philosophy

22. Strictly speaking, the type of government that Plato recommends is an democracy.

A. True

B. False

23. Plato thinks that the only kind of government worse than democracy is tyranny.

A. True

B. False

24. Skinner’s society, Walden Two, is primarily an agricultural community.

A. True

B. False

25. The kind of government that Plato recommends in his ideal society is a religious gov-

ernment.

A. True

B. False

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