Waiting for answer This question has not been answered yet. You can hire a professional tutor to get the answer.
PHILOSOPHY: JUST ONE SEMI-PARAGRAPH RESPONSE TO EACH Rene Descartes argues that there are two basic categories of existence (being), or substance:...
PHILOSOPHY: JUST ONE SEMI-PARAGRAPH RESPONSE TO EACH
Rene Descartes argues that there are two basic categories of existence (being), or substance: Minds and Bodies. Thus, whereas Aristotle saw "soul (the Form of the Body) and matter as a unity, Descartes sees them as categorically distinct, thus ushering in the problem of how do the two categories relate, or interact, when they are radically different. What do you think of such a program?
Descartes, like Spinoza, will use the strategy of the "Ontological Argument," for the existence of God. The claim is that there must be such an entity, because God is an entity, which is necessary, and thus must exist. Thus, in Descartes case, he will introduce here a third category of existence - because the human mind cannot be identical with God. Descartes then will affirm that God is no deceiver, thus the reality of the material world is established, only in so far as its "essence," or extension. How do you see this relationship?
Spinoza will ultimately affirm a philosophical monism. This means that he will affirm a singular basic reality, "Substance," or as he states, "God," or "Nature." This move makes it possible to avert any issues with Dualism concerning interaction between mind and matter. Further, this means that he may incorporate Descartes' notion of God, and claim that all being has its foundation in God, or Nature (the terms being interchangeable). What might your initial thoughts be for such a project?
Spinoza opens "The Ethics" in an unusual fashion, by listing 8 definitions. By this tactic, he is setting the stage for what follows, especially in terms of "Substance, Attribute, and Mode." What might be your first impressions of this approach?