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philosophy theories

WHAT ROLE DOES THE STATE OF NATURE PLAY IN HOBBES’ POLITICAL THEORY?

In Leviathan, Hobbes explicitly sets out his moral and political philosophy with regard to human nature, – that is how humans behave amongst each other as a social animal – the state of nature – the natural condition of human interaction as a result of their nature – and thus his political theory – that of an absolute sovereign in whom the power of the people is invested. Of these steps, (1. Human Nature; 2. State of Nature; and 3. Political Theory) for Hobbes, it is fundamentally necessary that the preceding occurs for the proceeding to come about, and thus, the state of nature is essential in Hobbes’ construction of a political theory. In order to prove this, the following will, firstly, analyse Hobbes’ conceptions of human nature and as a result the state of nature; secondly, discuss whether this necessarily leads to Hobbes’ political theory; and thirdly, if so, does his argument, in its entirety, prove to be both valid and true

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** ********* ****** ********** **** *** his ***** *** political ********** with regard to human ****** – **** ** how humans ****** ******* **** ***** as * social animal – the state ** ****** *** the ******* ********* ** ***** interaction as * ****** of their ****** – and **** *** ********* theory – **** ** ** ******** ********* ** **** the power ** *** people ** ******** Of ***** ***** ** ***** ******* 2 State ** Nature; and * ********* Theory) *** Hobbes ** ** fundamentally ********* **** the ********* ****** *** *** proceeding ** **** ***** *** thus the ***** ** ****** ** ********* ** ********* construction ** * ********* ****** ** ***** ** ***** **** *** ********* **** ******* ******* Hobbes’ conceptions of ***** ****** and ** * result *** state ** ******* ******** discuss ******* this necessarily ***** ** ********* political theory; *** ******* ** ** does *** argument ** *** ******** ***** ** be **** valid *** ********* ****** **** ********* ******** as regards ** ********* ********** ** human ****** is **** ** *** ********* as ** ** this pessimistic view that ****** Hobbes to *** conclusion **** *** ***** ** ****** ** as ************* ** his view describes ** ** ** ****** ****** **** every man is ************* by *** **** **** despite a *** who ******* ****** *********** ** ********** he believes ** ** his ***** he ** ******* **** liberally with *** ******* ** ********* ** this way contends ****** *** *** *** equal ** **** they *** ******* the **** ** themselves *** **** their equal stature ******* ** equality ** ******* *** ***** ******* ** ***** *** ***** ** ******* **** *** result ** **** is **** where *** ****** **** **** ****** both **** **** ****** mistrustful and ******* this ********** Life ********* to ****** is an egoistic quest for *** satiation of ********** *** ** the way ** **** *** *** **** ********* ** ********** and ********* *** ******* * ****** which is ************ ** ************ ********* ******* ** the ***** of ****** ** ** ******* *** **** *** *** augmentation ** ********* enjoyed ****** **** *** pursue **** ******** course ** ********* *** **** merely ** ***** ** ************ *** “the ***** ** this ** *** ****** **** * *** ***** *** a more intensive ******* than he has already ******** ***** *** he ****** ****** *** ***** *** ***** ** **** well… ******* the *********** ** more”[4] ** this *** ******* all *** ****** ************ ***** they ******* *** have ** **** ********** that those who desire ** ***** with them **** try *** **** it **** ************ *** **** ******* *** ***** ******** ******* to **** ***** **** ** **** *** as ** *** until *** ***** ** ** ***** **** ** ****** *** *** ***** who ***** **** him Men **** seek glory ******* *** it ** ******** ** ***** ****** ** ** so ****** ************* *** **** other ***** ** ****** ******* ** ******* 17 *** example ******* * ********** **** **** *** **** *** *** ******** he **** ** **** they *** ********* **** glory *** ***** *** bees and ants there ** ** ********** between the public and the private **** *** *** concerned **** ***** **** as *********** *** in ******** ** **** ** other men ****** ************ ***** ****** ** ******** ******** ******* ** **** ****** **** ****** *** ******* **** but amongst ***** ***** *** bees] *** **** ** ********* ** ***** **** ******* **** men disagree *** ***************** **************** *** ‘glory’ and ** ** *** ********* *************** **** ** men **** *** out the *********** **** which ********* vision ** *** ***** ** ****** ** constructed ********* state ** ****** therefore ** *** **** ** ** equally pessimistic ** *** **** of ***** ****** *** ***** of ****** for Hobbes ** **** of ******* ** the sense that ***** ** ** ************ ***** ** constrain *** ******* ** *** *** is *** ** ***** ***** *** ******* ********* *** ** **** ****** ** *** desires ** ********* ***** and ** **** all *** *** essentially free ******* them forsaking *** ****** ** resources *** ******* *** *** *** **** *** **** ********* desires not everyone *** *** ******* to ******* ***** desires *** result ** this ** a state which ****** ***** war ***** every *** ******* every ********* ****** *** ** no plainer ** *** explanation than **** the following: At this time ** **** ***** is ************ fear and ****** ** violent ****** and *** **** ** *** ** ******** **** nasty ******* and *********** ************ ** * ******* ** *** ***** ** war ******* *** and ******* **** ** *** all he *** in ***** to ********* his ************ it ******* ****** **** **** ******** man *** * ***** ** ***** ****** even ** one *********** **** *** ********* as **** ** this natural ***** of ***** *** ** ***** ***** endureth ***** *** ** ** ******** ** *** man”[8] Therefore ** the state of nature ***** *** ** rights ** ******** ** **** ****** of **** ** **** ******** **** *** a ***** ** what you **** ** ***** ** ** **** **** assumption **** ****** bases his **** ** ******* *********** ** relinquish his absolute ******* ******* **** ************* in favour ** * ****** ** which ** **** ** satisfied with as **** ******* ******* *** ** he would ***** **** ** **** ** ****** *** thereby ***** a ******** ******* himself ** ********* *** **** ***** ** all ** ********* Leviathan *** ** absolute ********* *** is *** ******** ******* ** *** cases: The ******** power says ****** ** **** which ** ******** ** *** person ** *** ********** *** ****** **** ** the ********* *** ********** condition ***** must be satisfied ** ***** *** *** ** escape *** **** of ****** ******* **** ***** ** ******** in one ****** ** **** *** ** *** ************* ********* *** most important thing ******* ** **** the ***** ** ******** in its ****** Where **** ****** *** ****** to *********** ******* ** ***** **** ** an ********* moral *** – **** ***** is right through some ****** ***** **** *** **** ** *** sovereign ** *** source ******** ** rationality ** * ******* ***** *** ** ******** ******** ****** * ************ limiting ********* ***** or ******* *********** ******* ********* ******** ** ********** ****** ********* **** in order to escape *** ***** ** nature ** **** **** ********* the **** ** *** ********* ** *** ********** ****** ** power **** is because; ** *********** *********** ******* ** power ** **** * ****** ** *** ***** of ****** ** when *********** ** ******* *** *** ******** **** ** is natural ******* and *** state of war will follow ** *** **** ** * ************ ** higher moral **** because ***** ************ ** *** ********* ** ******** ******* will be ********* to ********* **** *** *** ****** *** ** * ****** of **** *********** is ******* *** **** is *** **** for ****** *********** between ******** ** ********** *** thus it ******* **** *** **** *** ** ****** *** ***** ** ****** ** ** ********* *** ********** ** ********** *********** in *** most absolute **** ** is clear ********* *** *** ***** ** nature is ************ in ********* idea **** *********** **** ** ******** ** ** ** its harsh *********** ******** that ensure **** *********** ****** ** ******* ** ** are to ************ ****** its **** It is ******* ******* ******* whether ****** *** ****** ******* ******** a ********* in the ********* ***** *** whose ***** ** ******** *** ********* *** *** ***** ** *** ********* ** surely **** **** ***** the ****** **** *** commands *** thus where *** ****** ******* **** ******* rationality that *** ************* commands *** *** ** ********* with ***** ************* then **** **** ******* these ******** ** * scenario ********* ***** the ************* ** *** ****** *** so **** at **** **** *** **** ** *** ********* **** *** sovereign ** ****** *** power  In ********** *** ***** ** ****** plays * ******* **** in *** ********* of ****** ********* theory **** *** ***** ** a ********* should ** ******** ** ** Hobbes’ ***** of nature ** ****** ******* ** ******* ** ******** of human ****** **** **** out *** ********** *** that ** *** ************ ****** of *** *** the ********* ***** of *** ******* all *** for the **** way ** ****** *** ***** ** nature ** be *** ******** ** ** absolute ********* ** ******** *** course of ******* sovereignty ** any sense ***** * return to *** ***** of ****** It ******* therefore that ***** ***** *** ** ******* ********* man’s ability ** ****** **** * ********* through ******** ******** ********* premises ** be correct his **************** ** *** ***** ** ****** is ********** *********** ** *** claim **** *********** ****** ** *********************************** ****** Leviathan ******* **** (ed) (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1996) Murray ******* Leviathan: ****** ****** ** The ********* ******** M Forsyth *** M *********** ***** ******** ****** ********** ***** *******

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