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use easy word ,general answer to avoid any other urgent question from her the case study about Flint Michigan. 

each Question 2 pages use 10 reference  next each sentence from what i attached only, use also cooper model you will find it in poerpoient that i attaced and use it as reference(copper, 2017). teacher use turn in no  or same student work.

need definittion for each in the beginning of the essa next that use reference from wher you get the definittion.

use this important point for each for each essy:

Research Methods

  • -  Quantitative: measured in numbersQualitative: measured as a category or nonnumeric unit.

  • -  Reliability: arriving at the same results – or at least very similar results – every time I re-conduct the studyValidity: likely to happen and have not just appeared by chance

  • -  Likert scale measure: survey question that seek answers on a point scale

  • -  Dependent variable: depends on the influence of the independent variable Independent variable: responsible for causing the changes in the outcome

    Control variable: variables that are not under study but might affect the

    dependent variable

  • -  Classis Research Design

    has pretest and posttest control groups, simple, straight forward, groups

    are randomly selected.

  • -  Sampling designs:

    1 Simple Random Sampling – randomly chosen and each member has exactly an equal probability of being selected for the sample. 2 Cluster Sampling – the population is divided into groups, then a random sample of the clusters in selected.

  • -  Inductive Approach: no hypothesis

  • -  Deductive Approach: hypothesis needs to be proves


  • -  Ethics: a set of normative standards that determines what is fair, right,

    wrong, and just.

  • -  Unethical behavior is morally unaccepted but does not break any law

    Illegal behavior is against the law and is punishable

  • -  Subjective & Objective ResponsibilitySubjective = internal code, personal values, expression of MY beliefs. Objective = expectations imposed from the outside: responsible to superiors, country and citizens. Like Human Rights.

  • -  External and Internal controlsExternal controls involve things such as ethical legislation, laws and codes of conduct. An example is a law outlawing stealing money. Internal controls involve morals, professional standards and ethics (individual values, principals, standards, morals). An example is a personal belief that stealing money is bad.

  • -  Ethical theoriesCoopers model: (The Decision Making Model) Cooper’s decision-making model provides a technique to move from defining a problem to designing a course of action to resolve the issue. 1 Describing the situation - 2 Defining the ethical issue - 3 Options and courses of Action -4 Projecting out probable consequences –5 Which option will I choose -6 Resolution -


- Formal rulemakingLike a trial, presentation of evidence, adversarial proceedings, testimony and cross-examination, recommended rule by hearing officer, opportunity for appeal, final rule published in Federal Register.

Informal rulemaking - less regulated form of regulation because it provides flexibility, policy criteria, rationality, participation, efficiency and enforceability. 1- The agency should provide notice of the proposed rulemaking in the federal register for the public to see.

2- Give the public the opportunity to comment on the proposed rule to share their concerns or questions about the rule. 3- The agency should issue the final rule (final publication) with indicating that the rule will not take effect until the waiting period of minimum 30 days after the publication in the federal register.

APA (Administrative Procedure Act) 1946 - Congress became concerned with growth in governmental policy and created APA. • Promotes rationality & lawfulness in agency decision-making • Governs the way agencies propose and establish regulations

• Considered the “bill of rights” for citizens whose actions are regulated by agencies. • Defines the scope of judicial review.


- Moore’s strategic triangle and its elementsIt is a great tool to be used by the public managers when thinking of coming up with new policies that matters to the public, failure to meet the three elements of the strategic triangle will make the success of the policy very difficult and maybe impossible.Example to apply the strategic triangle: SAFER AIR Act of 2010Sen. Robert Bennett proposed and wrote this Act that involves the Department of Homeland Security (HSD) to ensure advanced imaging devices installed at the airports and metro stations to scan passengers before they get to the airplane or the train and to inspect them for any possible chance to carry explosive weapons. So the main goal is the security and safety of the public.

  1. 1-  The first element of the strategic triangle is the Public Value, looking to the reason and proposes of this act we will find it is really concerned about the public safety, but on the other hand people did not like such advanced technology that could provide very clear image for the human body naked. This is considered to be violation to the privacy right even though the goal behind is to save people lives. This led to a conflict between two public values. This Act died at the end and was sent back for committee.

  2. 2-  The Authorizing Environment. SAFER AIR Act didn’t have a good political support and that is another reason for it to die at an early stage as the Congress sent it back for a committee with a list of comments saying No.

  3. 3-  The Operational Capability or Sustainability, from what I have seen from this Act I think it is doable but it will cost a lot of money to come up advanced devices and technology that could do what it should do to scan the passengers and also at the same time ensure high level of privacy and ensure the images taken by these devices are not transferred or accessed by anyone other than the person operating the scanning device.

Public Theory

Wilson • Administration is strictly outside of the territory of politics • Elected officials make public policy and administrators carry out this policy.

Max Weber (Principles of Bureaucracy) • Control is from top to bottom – hierarchy and clear chain of command, no authority is given without referring to the top. • Based on a set of rules and regulations coming from public law, they are the final word. • Assigning accountability is clear, if someone makes an error it would be clear who made the mistake to hold him or her accountable. • Public administrators cannot have an opinion or take a stand. Their role is to only execute the orders passed down from authorities. • Expertise are seeked to fill positions available. • Focus is on management and procedures, not efficiency or outcome. • Impersonal and removed from public (think of DMV)

New Public Management

  • -  A reaction to bureaucracy, more flexible and adaptable to new

    complicated social situations like instant communication and


  • -  Customer driven, more like a private business.

  • -  Depends on the outputs and performance of an organization.

  • -  Managers are accountable and responsible for their decisions so they

    must be flexible to react to situations.

  • -  The public’s participation is allowed and appreciated in the decision

    making process.

    1-Ethics Question  :    You are employed by the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality. Your job is to make sure the water in the state of Michigan is safe to drink for the citizens. Recently the people in the city of Flint have been complaining of poor water. They claim that their water smells like sulfur and chlorine and that in many cases the water from the tap is the color of rust. It also is being suggested that the water is causing health problems. A little research has yielded up the fact that the city managers switched the water source from Lake Huron to water from the river that runs through town. This decision was not your decision to make but now you must decide on a course of action. Others in your department have chosen to not require the Flint water plant to utilize up-to-date corrosion control, but they have told the Environmental Protection Agency that they were doing so.  They claim the town is so small it will not matter at all.  Other employees have taken a few samples of water to check it but you are afraid some of the water samples that tested high for lead have been thrown out, but you cannot prove this.  What steps should you take immediately and why?

    2-Public Administration Theory  :take it general answer; Max Weber defined bureaucracy by six characteristics. Evaluate the bureaucratic environment in Flint from the point of view of Weber.Discuss the following:Hierarchy of CommandRules and Regulation of managementDivision of labor and work specialization by departmentThe nature of impersonal relationships in the various agencies.The competence of the employees enrolled in the case.Comment on the formal rules, regulations, procedures, and decisions by the various organizations and agencies.Discuss Theory X and Theory Y with respect to Flint, Michigan.Which of the two theories is more plausible and why given the information.Is Flint, Michigan a “Wicked Problem” according to Rittel & Webber?What safeguards would you propose to prevent or minimize the inefficiencies or failures of bureaucracy? (Note: you may use the definitions of Woodrow Wilson, Max Weber or any other major theorist of Public Administration.)

    3-law; Review the Safe Drinking Water Act and its implications in the Flint Michigan water crisis. Are there any rules that were broken and by whom? Discuss any potential impact of the Regulatory Flexibility Act on the water crisis.What formal or informal rules are needed to prevent this type of crisis?

    4-  Implementation Questions  :Use the Eightfold Path and provide an analysis of the Flint, Michigan water pollution issue. You may use all previous articles as sources of information.

    5-Research Methods Qustion:

    We will examine the following and you will write up the answer as an Question #5 for this course:The Flint Water System was found to be toxic so the main water source reverted to the Detroit system, not the Flint River.  After the switch, the water needed to be retested.  Read the following and determine:What is the research question?What are the variables?What is the research design?What was the sampling process?How was the data collected?How was the data analyzed?Why or why not was this effective? What did the results show?

    ATTACHMENT HERE: use POWERPENT as will dont use any attachment from out .

    Fivethirtyeight.com What went wrong in Flint?http://fivethirtyeight.com/features/what-went-wrong-in-flint-water-crisis-michigan/Elevated Blood Lead Levels in Children Associated with the Flint Drinking Water Crisishttp://ajph.aphapublications.org/doi/pdf/10.2105/AJPH.2015.303003We helped uncover a public health crisis in Flint, but learned there are costs to doing good sciencehttp://theconversation.com/we-helped-uncover-a-public-health-crisis-in-flint-but-learned-there-are-costs-to-doing-good-science-54227Moving Forward After Flinthttp://www.americanscientist.org/issues/pub/2016/3/moving-forward-after-flintInformal and Formal Rulemakinghttp://www.wise-intern.org/orientation/documents/crsrulemakingcb.pdfFlint + Bureaucracyhttps://psmag.com/the-bureaucratic-malfeasance-that-created-flint-and-sebring-s-water-crises-3cc6823f3b12#.gkk4lwwruAtlantic articlehttp://www.theatlantic.com/national/archive/2016/04/flint-water-lead-criminal-charges/479127/NPR -- Bureaucrcyhttp://michiganradio.org/post/snyder-charges-show-bureaucrats-blame-flint-water-crisis#stream/0Outrage over Flinthttp://web.a.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.callutheran.edu/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=af3544a2-457a-4ca7-90f9-5efe48d30d66%40sessionmgr4001&vid=86&hid=4114Safe Drinking Water Acthttps://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2015-04/documents/epa816f04030.pdfEPA and Water Safelyhttps://www.epa.gov/lead/enforcing-lead-laws-and-regulationsAdministrative LawOrigins of the EPAhttps://archive.epa.gov/epa/aboutepa/epas-origins-duties-transferred-epa-other-federal-agencies.htmlEnabling Act of the EPAhttps://archive.epa.gov/epa/aboutepa/epa-order-11102-initial-organization-epa.htmlCreating Public Valuehttps://www.hks.harvard.edu/m-rcbg/CSRI/publications/workingpaper_3_moore_khagram.pdfCongressional Record Safe Drinking Water Acthttps://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/RL31243.pdfLobby assessment of Safe Drinking Water Acthttp://lobby.la.psu.edu/015_Disinfectant_Byproducts/Congressional_Statements/House/H_Waxman_Safe_Drinking_Water.htmWashington Post - Anti-Flinthttps://www.washingtonpost.com/national/health-science/one-citys-solution-to-drinking-water-contamination-get-rid-of-every-lead-pipe/2016/05/10/480cd842-0814-11e6-bdcb-0133da18418d_story.htmlResearch about Flint from Virginia Techhttp://flintwaterstudy.orgPlumbing Researchhttp://journals.plos.org/plosone/article/authors?id=10.Flint Water Researchhttp://flintwaterstudy.org/page/3/State allows lawsuit to standhttp://www.detroitnews.com/story/news/michigan/flint-water-crisis/2016/10/27/flint-water-crisis/92839776/Flint Residents Must Begin Paying for Waterhttps://www.washingtonpost.com/news/energy-environment/wp/2017/02/28/flint-residents-must-start-paying-for-water-they-still-cant-drink-without-a-filter/?utm_term=.795d522b3

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