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What are bond parameters?

Bond parameters are the measurable properties of a bond that, taken together, define the properties of the bonds in a molecule.

Examples of bond parameters are:

  • Bond length
  • Bond angle
  • Bond strength
  • Bond polarity
  • Bond multiplicity

Bond length is the equilibrium distance between the nuclei of two bonded atoms.

For example, the length of an O-H bond in water is 95.7 pm. The length of an S-H bond in H₂S is 133.6 pm.

Bond angle is the average angle between the nucleus of the central atom and the nuclei of the bonded atoms.

For example, the H-O-H bond angle in water is 104 5 °,while the H-S-H bond angle in H₂S is 92.1 °.

Bond energy is the amount of energy required to break one mole of bonds of a particular type in a molecule in the gaseous state.

The bond strength of the O-H bonds in water is 459 kJ/mol. The bond strength of an S-H bond is 347 kJ/mol.

Bond polarity refers to the separation of charge in a bond. It results from differences between the bonded atoms.

In water, the electronegativity difference is 1.24, so the O-H bond is polar covalent. In H₂S, the electronegativity difference is 0.38. Since this is less than 0.4, the S-H bond is nonpolar.

Bond multiplicity is the number of bonds between two atoms in a molecule.

Bond multiplicity determines the relative lengths of bonds. For example, bond lengths are in the order C-C > C=C > C≡C.

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