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What causes boiling point elevation and freezing point depression in solutions?
Presence of particles in the solution.
Boiling point elevation and freezing point depression are affected by the presence of solute particles with the .
Note that the increase in boiling point ( or decrease in freezing point) depend only on the number, and not on the identity, of the solute particles present in the solution.
Freezing-point depression, boiling point elevation along with osmotic pressure are called .