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What intermolecular bonds does HCl have?

Dipole-dipole forces, and London dispersion forces.

There are three intermolecular forces that occur in . Though your question asks about "", it's correct to refer to them as forces because there are no formally shared electrons.

  • Dipole-dipole forces occur when polar molecules are attracted to one another. Basically, if one atom on the molecule is more electronegative than the others, it will pull electrons toward itself, giving it a partial negative charge. Likewise, the atoms that have had electrons pulled away from it will have a partial positive charge. When two molecules of this compound come in contact with each other, the partial positive charge on one will be attracted to the partial negative charge on the other - this is a dipole-dipole force. Because HCl is a polar molecule but doesn't have the H-F, H-O, or H-N bonds needed for hydrogen , its intermolecular forces are dipole-dipole forces.

  • This does not actually experience Hydrogen bonds as it is not Hydrogen bonded with either N,O, or F.

  • London dispersion forces occur from the attraction between temporarily polarized nonpolar molecules. Here's what happens: The electrons in a molecule are pretty much randomly and evenly distributed. However, through random movement, sometimes the electron (i.e. negative charge) is higher on one side than the other. This temporary polarity, in turn, causes an adjacent molecule to become polarized, and they are attracted to one another.

The London dispersion force is the weakest, followed by dipole-dipole forces and then hydrogen bonding.

If you'd like a little more information about each, have a look at http://misterguch.brinkster.net/intermolecularforces.html


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