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What is hypothesis testing in Statistics?
A hypothesis is an assumption about the (larger) population, which you want to know whether correct or not.
To do that, you use information from a sample which represents the population.
If information from the sample indicates a high probability that the assumption is not correct, then you reject the hypothesis. Otherwise, you accept it.
Clearly, the decision to reject or accept a hypothesis is never 100% correct, since you are only making the decision based on a sample. But done correctly, it is always more than good enough.