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What is the bond polarity of NH3?
First of all: what is a covalent bond? It is when electrons are shared between atoms. However, when the shared electrons are not equally shared, it is called a POLAR Covalent bond. e.g. Fluorine binding to Carbon, the shared electrons are not exactly in the middle of the two atoms. Because Fluorine is a smaller atom and has more protons and it brings electrons closer to it. So, this is a polar covalent bond. For NH3:
- Draw the Lewis structure. N is bonded to 3 hydrogen atoms (H), and has a pair of unshared electrons.
- Use theory to determine the shape of NH3. The electron pair geometry is tetrahedral but the molecular shape is TRIGONAL PYRAMIDAL.
- According to three dimensional structure, the molecule has a pyramid shape with hydrogen atoms 'below' the nitrogen atom. The nitrogen atoms draw the shared electrons in the bonds close to it, so the nitrogen has a PARTIALLY NEGATIVE CHARGE. This makes a NEGATIVE DIPOLE, because it has electrons near it.
- Hydrogen has a partially positive pole, because the electrons are farther away from H.
- Therefore, for NH3, the bottom (that has H atoms) is partially positive, and the top part (the N atom) is partially negative.
- THIS IS WHY AMMONIA IS POLAR. OR THE BOND POLARITY OF NH3 IS POLAR.