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Write a 1 page paper on pharmacology course work. 1. two types of neuroglial cells. Astrocytes and Oligodendrocytes 4 marks 2. two neurotransmitters which are amino acids, and two which are monoamines
Write a 1 page paper on pharmacology course work. 1. two types of neuroglial cells. Astrocytes and Oligodendrocytes 4 marks 2. two neurotransmitters which are amino acids, and two which are
2. What is an inverse agonist?
Inverse agonists are ligands that like agonists bind to the same active receptors but produce an opposite effect to that of an agonist by stabilize the receptors thereby reducing their activity.
4. Which statement is not correct?
a) Benzodiazepines potentiate the action of GABA on GABAA
b) Valium sensitises the GABAA receptor to GABA.
c) Benzodiazepines cannot activate GABAA receptors.
d) Barbiturates activate GABAA receptors.
The incorrect statement is _b____ .
5. With regard to neurotransmission, what do the letters EPSP stand for?
Excitatory Postsynaptic Potential
6. Indicate whether each statement relating to general anaesthetics is true or
false by ticking the appropriate box.
Block sodium channels False
Exhibit potency which correlates with their lipid solubility True
Inhibit excitatory (e.g. glutaminergic) receptors. True
Activate inhibitory (e.g.GABA) receptors True
Hyperpolarise neurones by blocking K+ channels False
7. Fill in the blanks below.
Carlsson hypothesized that schizophrenia is the result of excessive
___dopamine____________________ergic transmission in the brain. Consequently, an
example of a “typical” antipsychotic drug is __Perphenazine____________________, which acts by blocking __Dopamine D1 and D2 receptors__________________ receptors (specify the subtype).
8. Fill in the blanks below.
Withdrawal (abstinence) symptoms in drug dependency are associated with
reduced ___________dopamine____________ergic transmission in a localised area of
the brain called the ______nucleus accumbens_______________________ otherwise known as “the pleasure centre” of the brain.
9. Give three abnormalities most evident in the brains of Alzheimer’s disease
patients, post mortem.
At post mortem Alzheimer’s disease is characterised by neuronal loss, neurofibrillary tangle formation in the neocortex and hippocampus and specific presynaptic markers of cholinergic system appear to the uniformly reduced.
10. Briefly describe the role of the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE),
indicating how the scoring works.
This is a series of questions and tests which is used by clinicians for diagnosing dementia and to assess its severity and progression. If all the answers are correct a maximum score of 30 can be obtained. A score of 27 and above is considered normal while score below that will require further assessment for any mental impairment.
11. Define two of the following movement disorders: akathisia, bradykinesia,
dystonia, tardive dyskinesia.
Akathisia is a condition that is characterised by motor restlessness, ranging from anxiety to inability to sit or lie quietly or to sleep. It is a common side effect of neuroleptic medications.
Dystonia is a movement disorder characterized by sustained muscle contractions which results in writing or twisting movements and unusual body postures.
12. Give two examples of neurotransmitter receptors which are ionotropic
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and glutamate receptors
13. Name three main classes of glutamate receptor (abbreviations are
The three classes have been named after selective agonists which bind to these receptors such as NMDA, AMPA and KA.
14. Complete the table below, filling in all the blanks, giving one example of each
of the five main classes of hallucinogens.
Pharmacological class of
Anti-cholinergic - Atropine
Catecholamine-like - Mescaline
Serotonin-like - Lysergic acid diethylamide
NMDA antagonists - Selfotel
Opioid kappa agonist - Ketazocine
15. Which neural pathway has a role in movement control and is adversely
affected in Parkinson’s disease?
Parkinson’s disease is characterized by profound and selective loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neuronal pathway
16. a) Name two of the five main types of anxiety disorder.
Generalized anxiety disorder and Obsessive compulsive disorder
b) Name two of the four main classes of drugs used to treat such disorders.
Anti-depressants and anti-anxiety drugs
17. Name four acute effects of opiates.
Respiratory depression, opiod-induced hyperalgesia, increased mortality and hormone imbalances
18. a) What is Schildkraut’s theory of affective disorders?
The catecholamine theory of mood proposed by Schildkraut suggests that depression is associated with a functional deficiency of noradrenaline at receptor sites within the brain and mania is associated with an excess of noradrenaline at central receptor sites.
b) Give one example of a second generation anti-depressant drug, indicating
its mode of action.
Bupropion is an example of second generation anti-depressant and its main mechanism of action is known to be dopaminergic and noradrenergic.
1. For each neurotransmitter shown below (a - f), select the family to which it
belongs from the following list:
quaternary amine, monoamine (catecholamine), secondary amine
(catecholamine), amino acid (moncarboxylic acid), amino acid (dicarboxylic
acid), polypeptide, opioid pentapeptide.
a) Ach - cholinergic neurotransmitter
b) BDNF neurotrophin
c) GABA amino acid (dicarboxylic acid)
d) Glutamate amino acid (monocarboxylic acid)
e) Dopamine monoamine (catecholamine)
f) Met-enkephalin opioid pentapeptide
3. For the following passage, delete the incorrect words in the phrases shown in
A presynaptic alpha 2 receptor on a serotonergic neuron is called a
heteroreceptor . It reduces
neurotransmitter exocytosis by inhibiting the opening of Ca2+ ion
4. In each case, give one example of:
a) a natural narcotic: ___________opium___________________
b) a semisynthetic opioid: _______hydrocodone_______________________
c) a synthetic opioid: ____________Fentanyl__________________
5. With reference to one named neurotransmission mechanism, how does
ethanol mediate its action as a CNS depressant?
Recent studies have shown that depressing effects on the CNS by ethanol is mediated by GABA which is a primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the CNS. Activation of the GABA receptors by GABA decreases neuronal excitability.
9. Which statement is not correct?
a) Valium sensitises the GABAA receptor to GABA.
b) Barbiturates activate GABAA receptors.
c) Benzodiazepines cannot activate GABAA receptors.
d) Benzodiazepines potentiate the action of GABA on GABAA
The incorrect statement is __c__ .
14. Name three drugs/therapies that are currently in clinical trials (phases 1-3) for
the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease.
AC 1204 for people with mild to modertate disease
Advanced deep brain stimulation of the fornix in people with mild disease
AVP923 for treatment of agitation in Alzheimer’s disease
2. Broadly speaking dopamine receptors fall into 2 receptor subtypes. briefly
The D1 family of dopamine receptors is coupled to a G protein which activates adenylyl cyclase while the D2 family of dopamine receptors is coupled to a G protein which inhibits adenylyl cyclase.
6. Abuse of which substances (state one in each case) might be treated with:
i) mecamylamine _____nicotine antagonist used in smoking cessation programs___________
ii) disulfiram _______used to treat chronic alcoholism by acute sensitivity to alcohol_________
7. What is the basis of the dexamethasone suppression test for depression?
The test is used as a measure of the adrenal response to ACTH.
8. Give one example of each of the following, indicating in each case the
mechanism of action:
a) a first generation anti-depressant drug.
tricyclic antidepressant: amitriptyline
b) a second generation anti-depressant drug.
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors: Fluoxetine
10. There are four pharmacological strategies to treat anxiety disorders. Name
two of these, and give one named example of a drug for each.
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors: escitalopram
Serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors: venlafaxine
12. What are the three phases of schizophrenia? Briefly describe the behavioural
symptoms exhibited in each phase.
Prodromal phase : lose interest in usual pursuits, become easily confused, concentration problems, listless, apthetic and a preference to be alone
Active phase: experience, delusions, hallucinations, marked distortions in thinking and disturbance in behaviour and feeling.
Residual phase: people may be listless, concentration problems and general feeling of withdrawal
13. Antipsychotic drugs used in the treatment of schizophrenia are split into two
categories. typical and atypical.
a) Give one named example for each category.
Typical antipsychotic drug: Chlorpromazine
Atypical antipsychotic drug: Clozapine
b) What is the main problem associated with the use of the typical
These drugs carry a high risk of side effects some of which could be very severe.
15. The glutamate NMDA receptor is the target of memantine, a drug used in the
treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. How is this receptor implicated in the
pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease?
Increased stimulation of the NMDA receptor is implicated in the increased free radical production by which it potentiates the toxicity of several peptides and causes neuronal damage and impairment of synaptic plasticity.
16. The following questions refer to the symptoms associated with Parkinson’s
a) What are the four main motor symptoms of PD and briefly
mention the traits of these symptoms.
Shaking or tremor that involves involuntary shaking of the arms, legs, hands, jaw or tongue
Slowness of movement which is also referred to as bradykinesia
Stiffness or rigidity of the arms, legs or trunk
Postural instability that involves trouble with balance and possible falls.
b) Name two non-motor symptoms associated with PD.
Mood disturbances and apathy and depression are the two symptoms
17. What is 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and why has it
been useful in the understanding the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease?
MPTP is a model in which the neurotoxin MPTP is employed. This has a competitive advantage over other models as when it causes intoxication it induces a syndrome virtually identical to Parkinson’s disease in humans.