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Write a 11 page essay on Built environment (Physics equations).Download file to see previous pages A 'fire-resistive' building type (Type I) is to be used in the design. Structural components of this
Write a 11 page essay on Built environment (Physics equations).Download file to see previous pages
A 'fire-resistive' building type (Type I) is to be used in the design. Structural components of this type of building are that all roofs, walls, floors and supporting members ought to be made of non-combustible material. these materials are those that 'will not ignite, burn, support combustion, or release flammable vapours when heated'. Structural elements such as 'bearing walls, columns, beams, including girders, trusses, roofs and floors' may incorporate concrete and steel technology.2 Walls within hotel and office rooms can be constructed with the following:
Light steel infill walls provide the external envelope and compartment walls between roomsand the cladding to all buildings are a combination of a metallic cladding panel and a lightweight terracotta tile system which are attached to horizontal rails screwed through the external insulation to the light steel infill walls. Light steel C sections provide the required resistance to wind loads and support the self weight of the cladding. The internal compartment and partition are designed to give excellent acoustic insulation and fire resistance properties when finished with two layers of fire resisting plasterboard per side. Fire protection is achieved using intumescing coatingand the lightweight metallic and terracotta tile cladding system is selected in order to create a desirable architectural appearance.3
Non-combustible materials which are subject to stress from high temperature, such as steel should be protected from heat to prevent them from expanding which can result to structural failure.
In order to boost the fire safety of the building, the following systems may be or must also be incorporated in the building design4:
1. Smoke Management and Control
Smoke management system is important in order to 'modify, dilute or redirect the movement of smoke' in a burning building, thus facilitating evacuation. Smoke control system, on the other hand, is utilized to 'limit and control the movement of smoke during a fire'.5 The following may be used as a smoke control system in our design:
The most common approach involves pressurizing the areas on either side of the compartment where the fire is located and exhausting the fire area. This method creates a 'pressure sandwich' which tends to move air (and thus smoke) from the protected areas towards the fire and move smoke out of the fire area. While this does introduce fresh oxygen to the fire area, most systems are aimed at protecting the occupants and equipment in the adjacent compartments to allow evacuation and to allow firemen to gain clear access to the fire to extinguish it. The fire management techniques, equipment, and constructions employed around the fire compartment are relied upon to contain the fire rather than smother it by denying it air, which often will increase the smoke generated.6
2. Fire Sprinklers and Extinguishing agents
A fire sprinklers together with a fire extinguisher must be installed in every room in the building. The Metasal 876 is an excellent choice of extinguishing agent.