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Your assignment is to prepare and submit a paper on iran during the rule of ayatollah khomeini.

Your assignment is to prepare and submit a paper on iran during the rule of ayatollah khomeini. [] He was a lecturer at Najaf and Qum seminaries for decades before he was known in the political scene. .[] As a scholar and teacher, Khomeini produced numerous writings on Islamic philosophy, law, and ethics. Although Khomeini was not politically active, but his teachings and writings suggested that he was firm believer on the importance of clerics in political movement. He was the first Iranian cleric to try to refute the outspoken advocacy of secularism in the 1940s. However at the age of 60, the leadership arena opened for Khomeini following the deaths of two important clerical leaders during 1960's.

On 22 January 1963, Khomeini summoned a meeting of the senior parliamentarians of Qom and pursuaded them to decree a boycott on the referendum initiated by the Reza Shah Pahlavi which were regarded as dangerous. Khomeini accused Shah of his submission to America and Israel by violating the constitution by the way of issuing manifesto that represented the signatures of other senior Iranian Shia religious scholars. Khomeini denunicated Shah at several occasions for which he was arrested on 5th June, 1963 which sparked off riots throughout Iran and lead to deaths of several citizens, which is referred to as 'Movement of 15 Khordad'. Once again after the release from house arrest in 1964, Khomeini denounced both Shah and United States for the capitulations granted by the Shah to United States armed military to be treid in their own Military Courts, which lead to his arrest in November 1964 and held for half a year. Four Members of Fedeyan Islam were executed for the murder of Hassan-Ali Mansur, who slapped Khomeini, when he refused to apologize and drop the opposition from the government, for which Khomeini was sent into exile to Turkey.[]

B. Khomeini - Supreme Leader of Iran.

Khomeini spent 14 years in exile, not limited to one specific nation. But mostly he lived in Nazaf of Iraq which was under Saddam Hussein's power, then Turkey and France. [] After the 1977 death of Dr. Ali Shariati, an Islamic reformist and political revolutionary author/academic/philosopher who greatly popularized the Islamic revival among young educated Iranians, Khomeini became the most influential leader of the opposition to the Shah perceived by many Iranians as the spiritual, if not political, leader of revolt.[] Protest grew against the rule of Shah which gave more influence to Khomeini. Although thousands of kilometers away from Iran in Paris, Khomeini set the course of the revolution, urging Iranians not to compromise and ordering work stoppages against the regime. This resulted into revolution among the supporters of Khomeini against the Shah. Khomeini returned to Iran on the condition that Shah left the country, which he did. Khomeini's return to Iran was welcomed by joyous crowd, which led to creation of the government elected by him. [] He appointed the interim Prime Minister, demanding since he has appointed him, he must be obeyed and respected. According to him, it was God's government and disobeying the government was a revolt against God. Soldiers loyal to the Bakthiar Government defected Khomeini's movement.

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