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Your assignment is to prepare and submit a paper on scanning electron microscope.

Your assignment is to prepare and submit a paper on scanning electron microscope. The magnification ranges from 20X to 30,000X with a spatial resolution of fifty to one hundred nanometres. The SEM also has the capability of analyzing specific locations found on the sample, with this approach being particularly useful in semi-quantitative and qualitative determination of crystal orientations, crystalline structure, and chemical compositions.

&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp. A scanning electron microscope images samples via scanning them with electron beams with the model in a raster scan pattern (Reimer, 2008 p 97). The electrons released by the SEM interact with sample atoms and produce signals that consist of information revealing the composition and topography, and electrical conductivity.

&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp. In its functioning, accelerated electrons carry specific amounts of kinetic energy, dissipated in the form of various signals derived from interactions between the sample and the electrons (Reimer, 2008 p97). This occurs when the electrons incident on the model are decelerated in contact with the piece. The received signals could be secondary electrons, heat, visible light, photons, and diffracted backscattered electrons. Backscattered electrons and secondary electrons are usually utilized for sample imaging, with secondary electrons also used for showing the topography and morphology of the sample with backscattered electrons are used for contrast illustration of multiphase sample composition. X-rays are produced through inelastic collisions of electrons on the model and the electrons present in the sample atom’s discrete shells. During these electrons return to their lower energies, they give out fixed wavelength X-rays. Each element in the mineral being investigated produces X-rays, which are characteristic to it when excited by the electrons' beam. This process is non-destructive as these X-rays do not change the volume of the sample when they are lost. Thus, the same material can be investigated continuously.

The study found that exposure to white wine from Switzerland with a pH of 3.6 for approximately twenty minutes caused a reduction in microhardness as compared to fifty mol/L of lactic acid.

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