30 Geology Question

Question1 of 30

Which of the following best describes the fundamental concept of uniformitarianism?

All rocks are created in a continuous, uninterrupted and gradual sequence.

Older strata generally are deposited on younger strata without intervening, intermediate age strata.

Earth's topography has been shaped by sudden, catastrophic events.

Physical, chemical and biological processes operate today as they have in the past

Question

2 of 30

A _____________ is a well-tested and widely accepted view that best explains certain scientific observations.

hypothesis

generalization

law

theory

Question

3 of 30

__________ rocks always originate at the surface of the Earth.

Secondary

Igneous

Sedimentary

Metamorphic

Question

4 of 30

In correct order from the center outward, Earth's layers include:

core, inner mantle, outer mantle, crust

inner core, outer core, mantle, crust

inner core, crust, mantle, hydrosphere

core, crust, mantle, hydrosphere

Question

5 of 30

Which of the following statements is not correct?

Metamorphic rocks form from a magma.

Sedimentary rocks may weather to form other sedimentary rocks.

Magmas crystallize to form igneous rocks.

Igneous rocks can undergo metamorphism.

Question

6 of 30

The composition of the mantle of Earth is thought to be _____.

basalt

solid iron-nickel alloy

peridotite

gabbro

Question

7 of 30

The ________ is the thinnest layer of Earth.

outer core

mantle

crust

asthenosphere

Question

8 of 30

The relatively stable interior portion of a continent is known as a _____.

craton

platform

shelf

belt

Question

9 of 30

Active mountain belts are most likely to be found _____.

in the interior of continents

along the northern margins of continents

randomly scattered throughout continents

along the margins of continents

Question

10 of 30

I see crossbedding forming in the dunes of the modern world's deserts. I find crossbedding in the rocks of Zion National Park and I decide that those rocks formed in a large dune field. I have used the Principle of _______________ to make that decision.

Catastrophism

Uniformitarianism

Superposition

Paradigms

Question

11 of 30

The Earth is _______ years old.

4.5 million

10 billion

4.5 billion

5,000

Question

12 of 30

Oceanic crust is __________ continental crust.

less dense than

denser than

about the same density as

of more variable density than

Question

13 of 30

Water does not classify as a mineral because it _____.

is liquid

does not have a defined chemical composition

is never molten

is found in plants

Question

14 of 30

Which of the following would not be a crystal?

broken chunk of quartz

six-sided ruby

granite

cube of halite

Question

15 of 30

On the Mohs Scale of Hardness, the softest mineral is

gypsum

talc

diamond

diatomite

Question

16 of 30

Which of the following is an accurate description of ionic bonding?

Nuclei of bonding atoms exchange electrons; the resulting ions are bonded together by the attractive forces between the negative and positive nucleons.

Atoms of two different elements share electrons and protons; the resulting compound is bonded together by the strong, binding energy of shared protons.

Nuclei of two different atoms share electrons, and the resulting compound is tightly bonded by the very strong, induced, electronuclear bonds.

Atoms of different elements, having gained or lost electrons, form negative and positive ions that are bonded together by attractive forces between ions with opposite charges.

Question

17 of 30

Which of the following describes a mineral's tendency to split along smooth, parallel planes of atomic weakness?

diaphaneity

cleavage

tenacity

fracture

Question

18 of 30

Which of the following best characterizes ferromagnesian silicates?

They contain iron and magnetite, are black in color, and they have metallic lusters.

They are black to dark-green and contain iron and magnesium.

They are mostly clear, colorless, and rich in the element calcium and magnesium.

They contain magnetite and hematite and are rusty red.

Question

19 of 30

Which one of the following is an abundant product of weathering?

amphiboles

feldspars

clays

halite

Question

20 of 30

Granite is an example of a/an ______________ igneous rock.

phaneritic

vesicular

aphanitic

foliated

Question

21 of 30

A magma cools for a long time beneath the Earth's surface and then flows in a volcanic eruption. A ______________ igneous rock will result.

schistose

polymorphic

porphyritic

composite

Question

22 of 30

The intrusive rock ________ has the same chemical composition and mineralogy as the extrusive rock ____________.

granite, rhyolite

basalt, gabbro

andesite, diorite

pumice, obsidian

Question

23 of 30

A rock that will float in water is

obsidian

gneiss

tuff

pumice

Question

24 of 30

If the oceanic crust of the Earth cracks, the rocks below may _____.

melt due to decompression

shrink in volume

instantly explode due to exposure

not change in consistency

Question

25 of 30

The presence of water causes _____.

slowing of crystallization

rocks to melt at lower temperatures

porphyritic textures

raising of rocks' melting temperatures

Question

26 of 30

Bowen's Reaction Series indicates that amphibole and an intermediate composition plagioclase feldspar crystallize earlier from a cooling magma, while quartz and potassium feldspar crystallize later. If an igneous rock containing these four minerals is heated to a temperature at which melting begins, _____.

all four minerals will melt at the same temperature

the amphibole and plagioclase feldspar will start melting before the other minerals

the quartz and potassium feldspar will start melting before the other minerals

amphibole and quartz will melt first, then the feldspars

Question

27 of 30

The incorporation of host rock into a magma is called _____.

migmatism

assimilation

magmatic differentiation

starving

Question

28 of 30

Magmas that produce stratovolcanoes are _____.

high in silica and viscous

high in silica and fluid

low in silica and viscous

low in silica and fluid

Question

29 of 30

The Hawaiian Islands are a chain of _____.

stratovolcanoes

lava domes

shield volcanoes

fissure flows

Question

30 of 30

An igneous intrusion that resembles the filling in a layer cake is called a _____.

sill

dike

stock

batholiths

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  • mastersolution
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    8 of 30

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    ** ** 30

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    Question

    ** of 30

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    Question

    20 of 30

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    21 of 30

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    Question

    24 ** ***

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    *** ************* ** host **** **** * ***** is called _____

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    assimilation

    magmatic differentiation

    starving

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    ****** **** ******* stratovolcanoes *** ******

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    Question

    ** ** ***

    The ******** ******* are * chain ** _____

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