30 Geology Question

Question1 of 30
Which of the following best describes the fundamental concept of uniformitarianism?
All rocks are created in a continuous, uninterrupted and gradual sequence.
Older strata generally are deposited on younger strata without intervening, intermediate age strata.
Earth's topography has been shaped by sudden, catastrophic events.
Physical, chemical and biological processes operate today as they have in the past
Question
2 of 30
A _____________ is a well-tested and widely accepted view that best explains certain scientific observations.
hypothesis
generalization
law
theory
Question
3 of 30
__________ rocks always originate at the surface of the Earth.
Secondary
Igneous
Sedimentary
Metamorphic
Question
4 of 30
In correct order from the center outward, Earth's layers include:
core, inner mantle, outer mantle, crust
inner core, outer core, mantle, crust
inner core, crust, mantle, hydrosphere
core, crust, mantle, hydrosphere
Question
5 of 30
Which of the following statements is not correct?
Metamorphic rocks form from a magma.
Sedimentary rocks may weather to form other sedimentary rocks.
Magmas crystallize to form igneous rocks.
Igneous rocks can undergo metamorphism.
Question
6 of 30
The composition of the mantle of Earth is thought to be _____.
basalt
solid iron-nickel alloy
peridotite
gabbro
Question
7 of 30
The ________ is the thinnest layer of Earth.
outer core
mantle
crust
asthenosphere
Question
8 of 30
The relatively stable interior portion of a continent is known as a _____.
craton
platform
shelf
belt
Question
9 of 30
Active mountain belts are most likely to be found _____.
in the interior of continents
along the northern margins of continents
randomly scattered throughout continents
along the margins of continents
Question
10 of 30
I see crossbedding forming in the dunes of the modern world's deserts. I find crossbedding in the rocks of Zion National Park and I decide that those rocks formed in a large dune field. I have used the Principle of _______________ to make that decision.
Catastrophism
Uniformitarianism
Superposition
Paradigms
Question
11 of 30
The Earth is _______ years old.
4.5 million
10 billion
4.5 billion
5,000
Question
12 of 30
Oceanic crust is __________ continental crust.
less dense than
denser than
about the same density as
of more variable density than
Question
13 of 30
Water does not classify as a mineral because it _____.
is liquid
does not have a defined chemical composition
is never molten
is found in plants
Question
14 of 30
Which of the following would not be a crystal?
broken chunk of quartz
six-sided ruby
granite
cube of halite
Question
15 of 30
On the Mohs Scale of Hardness, the softest mineral is
gypsum
talc
diamond
diatomite
Question
16 of 30
Which of the following is an accurate description of ionic bonding?
Nuclei of bonding atoms exchange electrons; the resulting ions are bonded together by the attractive forces between the negative and positive nucleons.
Atoms of two different elements share electrons and protons; the resulting compound is bonded together by the strong, binding energy of shared protons.
Nuclei of two different atoms share electrons, and the resulting compound is tightly bonded by the very strong, induced, electronuclear bonds.
Atoms of different elements, having gained or lost electrons, form negative and positive ions that are bonded together by attractive forces between ions with opposite charges.
Question
17 of 30
Which of the following describes a mineral's tendency to split along smooth, parallel planes of atomic weakness?
diaphaneity
cleavage
tenacity
fracture
Question
18 of 30
Which of the following best characterizes ferromagnesian silicates?
They contain iron and magnetite, are black in color, and they have metallic lusters.
They are black to dark-green and contain iron and magnesium.
They are mostly clear, colorless, and rich in the element calcium and magnesium.
They contain magnetite and hematite and are rusty red.
Question
19 of 30
Which one of the following is an abundant product of weathering?
amphiboles
feldspars
clays
halite
Question
20 of 30
Granite is an example of a/an ______________ igneous rock.
phaneritic
vesicular
aphanitic
foliated
Question
21 of 30
A magma cools for a long time beneath the Earth's surface and then flows in a volcanic eruption. A ______________ igneous rock will result.
schistose
polymorphic
porphyritic
composite
Question
22 of 30
The intrusive rock ________ has the same chemical composition and mineralogy as the extrusive rock ____________.
granite, rhyolite
basalt, gabbro
andesite, diorite
pumice, obsidian
Question
23 of 30
A rock that will float in water is
obsidian
gneiss
tuff
pumice
Question
24 of 30
If the oceanic crust of the Earth cracks, the rocks below may _____.
melt due to decompression
shrink in volume
instantly explode due to exposure
not change in consistency
Question
25 of 30
The presence of water causes _____.
slowing of crystallization
rocks to melt at lower temperatures
porphyritic textures
raising of rocks' melting temperatures
Question
26 of 30
Bowen's Reaction Series indicates that amphibole and an intermediate composition plagioclase feldspar crystallize earlier from a cooling magma, while quartz and potassium feldspar crystallize later. If an igneous rock containing these four minerals is heated to a temperature at which melting begins, _____.
all four minerals will melt at the same temperature
the amphibole and plagioclase feldspar will start melting before the other minerals
the quartz and potassium feldspar will start melting before the other minerals
amphibole and quartz will melt first, then the feldspars
Question
27 of 30
The incorporation of host rock into a magma is called _____.
migmatism
assimilation
magmatic differentiation
starving
Question
28 of 30
Magmas that produce stratovolcanoes are _____.
high in silica and viscous
high in silica and fluid
low in silica and viscous
low in silica and fluid
Question
29 of 30
The Hawaiian Islands are a chain of _____.
stratovolcanoes
lava domes
shield volcanoes
fissure flows
Question
30 of 30
An igneous intrusion that resembles the filling in a layer cake is called a _____.
sill
dike
stock
batholiths

 

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    * ************* ** a *********** *** ****** accepted **** **** best ******** ******* ********** *************
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