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# 90 CRITICAL THINKING Spring, 2018 Rutgers University 1.

**21:730:107:90 CRITICAL THINKING**

**Spring, 2018 Rutgers University**

1. If x is causally necessary for y, then it is necessary that y is

___________________________________________________ for x.

2. Construct an evil twin for the following valid argument form:

P1: If Not-F then (A provided C unless D)

P2: Not-(A provided C unless D)

C: Not-Not-F

3. Damning evidence **must** never be known by the arguer to whose argument it applies.

(i.) TRUE (ii.) FALSE (iii.) Spurious! (iv) unknowable

4. 0 + 5 = -5 is _____________________________ for getting divorced.

5. Given a proof by contradiction (PBC) whose support is .4 and whose original premises are false, the negation of the conclusion (i.) must be true (ii.) cannot be true (iii.) is perverse (iv.) can't be evaluated for truth.

6. If x is a node in a hierarchically organized tree structure, then it is ________________________________ for all nodes in the tree structure lower than it.

7. **P1**: 8% of all Rutgers/Newark students will get drunk this weekend. **P2**: Booze-Head is a Rutgers/Newark student. What can be inductively concluded about Booze-Head from these premises?

________________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

8. (i.) Every (ii.) Not every (iii.) No substitution instance of the following argument form is valid:

** P1: **Either not-not-q or (not-p and not-q)

** P2:** Not-(Not-p and not-q)

** C:** Not-q

9. When you infer "x is causally sufficient for y" from "x is sufficient for y" without additional information, you have committed the

_____________________________________________________________________.

10. (i.) Every (ii.) Not every (iii.) No substitution instance of the following argument form is __invalid__:

** P1:** If p then not-q

** P2: **not-not-q

** C: **not-not-p

11. Attending accounting class **and** listening to Schubert's music is

________________________________________________ for squaring the circle.

12. The reason why a PBC with support 0 is worthless is that

____________________________________ in which the augmented premise set is true,

but you do not know which one it is.

13. When we conjecture x causes y and perform an experiment to prove this is so, how do we rule out the case that y causes x **AND** x and y occur at the same time?

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

14. If you encounter a substitution instance of Modus Tollens in which the second premise is clearly true, is it rational for you to believe the conclusion?

(i) YES (ii) NO (iii) MAYBE (iv) Indeterminate

15. Suppose that you conduct a poll for a Presidential Election (in the United States) by going to various health care facilities to interview people both working there and who are there for medical treatments. Suppose you have a true random sample of all health care facilities in the United States. Is your poll subject to the fallacy of bias?

(i) YES (ii) NO