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According to psychological egoism, we are able to perform an action only if we believe that it will promote our own interests. Describe a scenario...
26. According to psychological egoism, we are able to perform an action only if we believe that it will promote our own interests. Describe a scenario that seems to refute psychological egoism.
27. Suppose that person O is an ethical realist who thinks that God exists and makes true pronouncements on ethical matters. One of these true pronouncements, suppose, is that x is impermissible. In this case, what is the correct direction of explanation according to O?
(a) God says that x is impermissible because x is impermissible
(b) x is impermissible on no other grounds than that God says so
(c) one is not allowed to do x because God says that x is impermissible (d) b and c
(e) none of the above
- Why is it that, if divine command theory is true, what God says concerning right and wrong is arbitrary?
- (a) To say that God's decisions are arbitrary is to say that God has no reason for determining that it is wrong to do what it is wrong to do.
- (b) To say that God's decisions are arbitrary is to say that God has sufficient reason for determining that it is right to do what it is right to do.
- (c) Divine Command Theorists must say that God has no reason for determining that it is wrong to do x (x being something wrong to do) because if there were another reason we would say that it is wrong to do x for this other reason, not because God commanded it (which violates divine command theory).
- (d) a and b
- (e) b and c
- One objection to divine command theory is that it does not seem workable. On what grounds is it commonly
argued that divine command theory is unworkable?
There is no way to determine, it seems, which God is the one true God—and even if we knew which
God was the one true God, divine command theory does not tell us how to distinguish legitimate divine
commands from illegitimate ones.
(b) Divine command theory entails morally abhorrent results such as that it would be morally obligatory to
rape innocent infants for fun if God commanded us to do so.
(c) Christianity, a white-man's religion glorifying the meek, has been used—along with physical violence—
to have people accept their status as slaves of the white man.
(d) a and b
(e) None of the above
30. Using the relevant tools for evaluating inductive arguments, determine whether the following argument is successful. Make sure to explain your use of these tools led to your answer.
Istvan's new car is bright blue, has fabric upholstery, and gets decent gas mileage. John's new car is also bright blue and has fabric upholstery. Therefore, it probably gets decent gas mileage as well.