Waiting for answer This question has not been answered yet. You can hire a professional tutor to get the answer.
Explain Isomerism and define its types?
Isomerism is a very broad topic however they are molecules with the same molecular formula but different structured differently.
Isomers can be split into 2 groups-
- Structural Isomers
Structural Isomers come in three main types- Chain - Same molecular formula but have a different chain length. E.g. Pentane and 2-methylbutane both have molecular formula of C5H12. Positional - Same molecular formula but different position of a functional group. E.g. 1-Chloropentane and 2-Chloropentane have the same molecular formula of C5H11Cl. Functional group - Same molecular formula but a different functional group. E.g. Pent-1-ene and Cyclopentane (one is an alkane and one is an alkene) both have the molecular formula of C5H10.
I have made a video that will explain more as part of my A Level Chemistry Revision videos YouTube channel. Structural Isomers
Stereoisomerism comes in the following forms-
Optical (enantiomers) - Same molecular formula but different optical properties. They exist as a pair of enantiomers which are mirror images of each other and are non-superimposable. They rotate plane polarised light by the same amount but in opposite directions. They have a chiral centre with 4 different groups coming from it. Your hand is chiral, a left hand glove will not fit a right hand as it is non-superimposable.
Geometric (E-Z isomerism) This is the same molecular formula but a different arrangement of atoms in space. E-Z or Cis-Trans. My video explains this in more detail. Stereoisomerism
Conformational Isomerism - Same molecular formula but structured differently due to rotations around a single covalent bond.